Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Fighting for the Patria on the ‘Wrong’ Side of the Border: The Role of the Mexican Consuls in the Federal Campaign Against the Magonista Rebels in Baja California in 1911

Lawrence D. Taylor


This article examines the role of the Mexican consuls in southern California during the counterinsurgency campaign conducted by the Porfirio Díaz government against the Magonista rebels in Baja California in 1911. It traces the development of the Mexican and U.S. intelligence networks in the border region noting the key role played by the consular officials of both countries with respect to what was, in effect, a binational system. The article details the process by which, as time went on, the Mexican consuls came to play an increasingly more active part in the struggle. This tendency eventually led to - in conjunction with the Mexican patriot organization Defensores de la Integridad Nacional - the smuggling of arms and men into Baja California to bolster the federals' defensive and striking power. The article explores the implications of such actions with regard to violations of U.S. neutrality by the federals, which, according to the latter, were committed exclusively by the rebel groups.

Full Text:


All rights reserved
Print ISSN: 0886-5655
Online ISSN: 2159-1229