Illumine: Journal of the Centre for Studies in Religion and Society <p><em><strong>Illumine</strong></em> is an online, peer-reviewed scholarly journal that explores historical and contemporary issues concerning religion, culture, and society. It is produced by graduate students, other research fellows, and staff of the University of Victoria’s <em>Centre for Studies in Religion and Society (CSRS)</em>. It publishes articles and creative works by current and recent graduate students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Victoria en-US Illumine: Journal of the Centre for Studies in Religion and Society 1705-2947 <p style="line-height: 140%; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors contributing to <em>ILLUMINE </em>agree to release their articles under the <em><strong>Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License</strong></em>. This license allows anyone to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal right of&nbsp;first publication.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% white;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Full Issue <em>Illumine</em> is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary graduate journal produced by graduate students at the Centre for Studies in Religion and Society at the University of Victoria. Journal Manager Copyright (c) 2014-11-14 2014-11-14 12 1 10.18357/illumine121201313320 Introduction Angela Andersen Copyright (c) 2013 Angela Andersen 2014-11-14 2014-11-14 12 1 1 3 10.18357//illumine.andersena.1212013 Idealism “Must Not Blind Us”: British Legislators and the Palestine Mandate, 1929-1934 In Mandate Palestine during the 1920s and 1930s, the British sought to establish a legal system for the new political entity. This task was fraught with difficulty, as the British soon discovered. Events in Palestine often occurred in such an extreme manner that the British officials could not establish control. As a result of the failure of the legal system to address the new realities on the ground, these officials were often in a position where all they could do was respond to emergencies, as was the case following the Arab Revolt in August of 1929. Despite the fact that much of what occurred on the ground in Mandate Palestine, particularly with regard to land transactions and dispossessions, often occurred outside of British control, officials were acutely aware of the realities facing the Arab agricultural cultivators being threatened with dispossession. The difficulty the British had in suppressing the violence drew attention to their lack of authority over the land question that was creating tensions between the Arab and the Jewish populations. In examining minute sheets of the Colonial Office and correspondence between British officials, it becomes clear that these officials were aware of the impossibility of resolving the contradiction inherent in their position. This paper seeks to examine British responses immediately following the 1929 Revolt to show that the British accurately perceived the problems as they existed on the ground in Palestine but were unable to take actions against them. This will demonstrate the extent to which the failures of the Mandate, with regard to preventing dispossessions, was a failure of the legal system as a whole rather than the result of any individual shortcomings of the officials in control of the territory. Amber Ayers Copyright (c) 2014-11-14 2014-11-14 12 1 5 13 10.18357/illumine121201313322 Romanticizing the Land: Agriculturally Imagined Communities in Palestine-Israel This paper argues that images, and specifically agricultural images, play a significant role in the imaginings of the Israeli and Palestinian communities. Agriculture has symbolic and material value among Palestinians and Israelis, and contributes to identities and land claims made by Zionist and Palestinian organizations. Anderson’s discussion of nation building emphasizes the primacy of print in the imagination of a community; this paper highlights non-textual elements of nation building via case studies of the creation and dissemination of propaganda posters by the Jewish National Fund and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. A survey of propagandistic agricultural images reveals the shared symbols used by Palestinians and Israelis in forging identities and exclusive claims to land. Despite being common symbols from a shared past, agricultural images are crucial in creating and perpetuating a divide between Israelis and Palestinians, and in arguing for organic links between each group and the land of Palestine-Israel. Jennifer Shutek Copyright (c) 2014-11-14 2014-11-14 12 1 14 37 10.18357/illumine121201313323 The Notion of Subhuman Identity in the War on Terror Foreign policies in the global political arena continue to demonstrate the consequential after-effects of the terrorist attacks in New York on September 11, 2001. Propagations of a “terrorist threat” are strategically used by Western political actors to achieve a multiplicity of ends. In some cases, these ends supersede accepted international precedents, both in the realms of international law and convention. In particular, United States President George W. Bush’s War on Terror, and President Barak Obama’s continuing drone operations in the Middle East exemplify instances of political transcendence. Through the strategic enactment of ambiguous laws and through intimate utilizations of notions of “state sovereignty” and “national self-defense,” the American Government has gained unprecedented authority in the treatment of suspected terrorists. This article examines the legal, theoretical, and ethical elements of the War on Terror and the American drone operation in the Middle East to illustrate the exceptionalness of Al-Qaeda and Taliban combatants in American legal understanding. Jessica Singh Copyright (c) 2014-11-14 2014-11-14 12 1 38 57 10.18357/illumine121201313324 Turkey Post 1980 Coup D’etat: the Rise, the Fall, and the Emergence of Political Islam While it has often been perceived that Kemalist Turkey succeeded in firmly establishing secularization, the Islamist movement that followed the 1980 military intervention questioned the fundamental principles of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk by embracing Islamic identity and Islamic values in the social and public sphere. This paper will examine the rise, the fall, and the emergence of political Islam in Turkey following the 1980 coup d’état. Following the military intervention of 1980, the level of Islamic activism rose due to state policies during the 1980s and 1990s. It can be observed that the consequences of the Islamic tolerance during the 1980s and 1990s led to the rise and the fall of the Islamic leaning Welfare Party of Necmettin Erbakan. This paper will also explain how the Justice and Development Party (AKP) differed its policies from the Welfare Party, by blending a moderate Islamic identity with a pro-Western mentality, to achieve support and stability for Islamist politics. Khash Hemmati Copyright (c) 2014-11-14 2014-11-14 12 1 58 73 10.18357/illumine121201313325 Notes On Contributors Journal Manager Copyright (c) 2014-11-14 2014-11-14 12 1 74 75 10.18357/illumine121201313326