Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle <p>WPLC is a peer reviewed working papers journal published by the graduate students of the department of linguistics at the University of Victoria. In 2010 we switched to only online digital publication and our digital archives on this website go back to the first volume printed in 1981.</p> <p>We publish one thematic issue each year. Every four years we publish the proceedings of the Northwest Linguistics Conference when the conference is hosted by graduate students in the Department of Linguistics of the University of Victoria.</p> University of Victoria en-US Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle 1200-3344 <p>All rights are retained by submitting authors. If you are an author of a previously print only paper and wish to have the digital version removed please contact the journal at</p> Improving teachers’ intercultural awareness and communication skills for the benefit of non-native learners’ academic performance <p>Despite the increasing need for teachers to effectively accommodate students in increasingly multicultural grade-school classrooms, there remains a glaring lack of practical suggestions for teachers to do so. In response to this gap in the literature, the goals of this paper are (a) to highlight the effects of teachers’ intercultural awareness and communication skills on the academic performance of non-native students; (b) to generate practical recommendations for teachers to improve their intercultural awareness as well as verbal and non-verbal communication skills in the classroom. In doing so, this paper may function as a response to the call for additional insights on the topic.</p> Erin O'Toole Copyright (c) 2023 Erin O'Toole 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 33 1 1 14 덪! 꽃! 멋! (Dot! Kkot! Mot!) Coda Neutralization in Korean <p>In this paper, I aim to propose a teaching tool that aids Korean L2 undergraduate English-speaking students in acquiring coda neutralization. In comparison to the English language, which distinguishes obstruents as either voiced or voiceless, Korean obstruents have a three-way distinction of laryngeal features. In addition, the Korean language allows more phonemes to be neutralized that in English. These phonological characteristics cause beginner students whose L1 is English difficulties. To address the issues that beginner students' face, I developed a teaching tool that Korean-as-a-foreign-language instructors can use to benefit their students' understanding by combining theoretical understandings of Korean phonology (specifically obstruents in the coda position) with pedagogical theory. This tool begins with awareness building exercises to expand students' phonological knowledge of Korean. After, students apply their knowledge through comprehension problems. At the end of the paper, I provide the teaching tool's significance in regards to second language acquisition, it's limitations, and suggestions for modification to suit the students' native language and L2 proficiency in Korean.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Korean-as-a-foreign-language; coronal obstruents; coda neutralization; comprehensible input hypothesis; teaching tool</em></p> Matthew Somerville Copyright (c) 2023 Matthew Somerville 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 33 1 15 26 The Future of General Linguistic Theory <p class="3AbstWPLC">This paper argues that contemporary theories of language do not adequately account for the relationship between human language and cognition. It begins with an overview of generative linguistic theory and its connection to modern cognitive science, focusing on the role and status of linguistic description. This connection is then refined by outlining the major goals of theories of language, specifically, theories that purport to account for the human language faculty. I claim that theories meeting such goals ultimately account for nothing of substance, since generative linguistic theory maintains an unfeasible conception of mind, along with unreliable methods of investigating it. If our goal is to understand human language in general, we must change how we look at the relation between language and thought. This entails a change in how we view the data comprising language-particular theories, and the construction of a new sort of general linguistic theory.</p> Jared Desjardins Copyright (c) 2023 Jared Desjardins 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 33 1 27 47 A corpus-based study of Mandarin Chinese referring expressions in oral narratives of preschool children <p class="3AbstWPLC"><span lang="EN-US">This study utilizes a corpus-based approach to investigate the use of referring expressions, such as definite and indefinite noun phrases and pronouns, in oral narratives produced by monolingual Mandarin Chinese-speaking preschool children. The data material used in this study was collected from the spoken narratives of five 4-year-old children selected from the Zhou Narratives corpus <a name="OLE_LINK404"></a>(Li &amp; Zhou, 2011). Following the cognitive approach of Gundel et al. (1993), this study analyzes the interplay between the forms of referring expressions and their corresponding cognitive statuses and discourse functions. The results of this study indicate that the correlations between the referential forms produced by 4-year-old Chinese monolingual children and their cognitive statuses and discourse functions are in line with the predictions of the Givenness Hierarchy and the patterns observed in earlier research conducted by Gundel et al. (1993) with Chinese adults. However, this study also reveals notable distinctions in the preferred referential forms used by Chinese monolingual children and adults in relation to specific cognitive statuses and discourse functions, suggesting that the development of referential appropriateness in narrative production is a gradual process.</span></p> Yifang Yuan Copyright (c) 2023 Yifang Yuan 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 33 1 48 70 Emotion-Conveying Words in Polish Social Media <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A growing body of research has attempted to categorize emotions in social media text. However, emphasis on macro-scale trends does not provide a nuanced view of how those classifications are drawn. This article builds on Oberländer’s work on semantic role labeling in sentiment analysis, using their 2020 schema of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">cue word, target, cause, </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">and </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">experiencer </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">to examine semantic roles in social media posts. Using a corpus of geopolitical Polish-language Facebook data annotated for the presence and intensity of 23 distinct emotions, we generate three hypotheses regarding the actors and emotions in our data. We use two subcorpora of posts containing contempt and admiration, emotions that are roughly bivalent and under-researched in the current literature. Our findings suggest that part-of-speech is not a relevant consideration, and that emotion-conveying words are monovalent–that is, they do not signal multiple emotions in different contexts. We also find differences in the semantic roles towards which our two bivalent emotions are directed, as well as the relative intensity with which they are expressed. We hope this exploratory study can inform future research on the integration of semantic role labeling and sentiment analysis.</span></p> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Keywords: sentiment analysis; semantic role labeling; emotion; social media</span></em></p> <p><br style="font-weight: 400;"><br style="font-weight: 400;"></p> Anna Prince C. Anton Rytting Ewa Golonka Copyright (c) 2023 Anna Prince, C. Anton Rytting, Ewa Golonka 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 33 1 71 86 Multilingualism in the Linguistic Landscape of Ibadan, Nigeria <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Multilingualism is one of the features of language contact that characterises language use in the public spaces of cosmopolitan areas like Ibadan. Little attention has been paid to multilingualism on signs in the public spaces of Ibadan. This study was, therefore, designed to investigate how multilingualism is reflected in the linguistic landscape of Ibadan with a view to determining the languages used on signs, their patterns and statuses in relation to the sociolinguistic context of Ibadan.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Seven communities in Ibadan (Challenge, Dugbe, Mokola, Iwo Road, Sango, Olodo and Ring Road) were purposively selected because of the strategic presence of different signs in them. The signs were subjected to sociolinguistic and descriptive statistical analyses.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Findings reveal that languages (English, Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Arabic, French and Nigerian Pidgin) were used in various ways to show ethnolinguistic vitality, language hierarchy, dominance, distinctiveness and for economic motivation. Although monolingual language use had a high status in all the communities, there were also the pervasive use of English, visibility of French, Arabic and Nigerian Pidgin and the marginalisation of indigenous languages on the signs. These were due to the sign writers’ skill condition, the presumed readers’ condition and the symbolic value condition.</span></p> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Keywords:</span></em> <em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Linguistic landscape; Language hierarchy; Ethnolinguistic vitality</span></em></p> Adeola Aminat Babayode-Lawal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal Manager; Adeola Aminat Babayode-Lawal 2023-10-29 2023-10-29 33 1 87 109