Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle <p>WPLC is a peer reviewed working papers journal published by the graduate students of the department of linguistics at the University of Victoria. In 2010 we switched to only online digital publication and our digital archives on this website go back to the first volume printed in 1981.</p> <p>We publish one thematic issue each year. Every four years we publish the proceedings of the Northwest Linguistics Conference when the conference is hosted by graduate students in the Department of Linguistics of the University of Victoria.</p> en-US <p>All rights are retained by submitting authors. If you are an author of a previously print only paper and wish to have the digital version removed please contact the journal at</p> (WPLC) (WPLC) Mon, 18 Oct 2021 13:12:55 -0700 OJS 60 Multifunctionality of <em>le</em> in Nepali <p>This paper studies the use of <em>le</em>, a unit of language (UoL) in Nepali, and its multifunctionality. As a UoL, <em>le</em> denotes one single lexical item that demonstrates different functions, depending upon the syntactic contexts <em>le</em> is used in. The study discusses four different functions of <em>le</em>: <em>le</em>-ergative, <em>le</em>-instrumental, <em>le</em>-reason, and <em>le</em>-verb. As an ergative marker, <em>le</em> is a suffix on the subject of a transitive verb. However, as an instrumental marker, <em>le</em> is attached to an object that the subject uses to perform an action. The UoL <em>le</em> is attached to past participle forms of the verb, and it shows a reason as a reason-clause marker. In addition, <em>le</em> can also be used as a lexical verb. After these four functions are discussed, the paper attempts to associate the multifunctionality of <em>le</em> with four domains of Wiltschko’s (2014) Universal Spine Hypothesis (USH): classification, point-of-view, anchoring, and linking.</p> <p><em>Keywords: le in Nepali; multifunctionality; Universal Spine Hypothesis</em></p> Raj Khatri Copyright (c) 2021 Raj Khatri Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 The syntax and discourse function of <em>you see</em> <p>This study of the syntax-discourse interface investigates the form and function of<em> you see</em>, which has been analyzed as a fixed and movable expression displaying discourse functions in spoken English (Erman, 1987; Fitzmaurice, 2004; Hale, 1999; Ranger, 2010). Based on the data excerpted from British National Corpus (BNC), the primary discourse function of <em>you see</em> is to manage common ground (CG). Specifically, the function of<em> you see</em> as an agreement seeker is available at both sentence peripheries, but the sentence-initial <em>you see</em> co-occurs with a phonological unit such a stress. Sentence-medial <em>you see</em> serves to check mutual knowledge. Following the Universal Spine Hypothesis (USH) (Wiltschko, 2014), two functions involved in the use of <em>you see</em> are <em>grounding</em> and <em>responding</em> (Wiltschko &amp; Heim, 2016). It is shown that sentence-initial <em>you see</em> and the phonological unit it co-occurs with are linked to different layers in the spine. In this context, <em>you see</em> is associated with the <em>grounding layer</em> (GroundP) involving Speaker’s (S) and Addressee’s (A) commitment (Ground-S and Ground-A) to the proposition (p) (Thoma, 2016), and the phonological unit is associated with the <em>responding layer</em> (RespP), requesting a response from A. The sentence-final <em>you see</em> is dedicated to <em>grounding </em>and<em> responding layers</em> independent of the co-occurrence of phonological elements. <em>You see</em> in medial and negation contexts is less related to the A’s propositional attitude and solely accesses to S’s ground. Specifically, the negation <em>not</em> values the coincidence feature [<em>u</em>coin] associated with GroundP as [-coin] (Wiltschko, 2018), thereby illustrating that p is not in S’s set of beliefs. The results suggest that the syntactic positions of <em>you see</em> can be organized on a continuum, each showing a different degree of intersubjectivity.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Discourse marker; spoken English; Universal Spine Hypothesis</em></p> Rain Mao Copyright (c) 2021 Rain Mao Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Condition C violations in Thai and St’át’imcets <p>This paper aims to look at the relationship between different types of noun phrases in sentence structure. It focuses on Binding Theory, specifically, by outlining apparent Condition C violations found in both Thai and St’át’imcets. It presents examples of the apparent violations and consolidates restrictions found in previous literature on when these violations can occur. The violations in the two languages are compared and Dechaine and Wiltscko’s (2002) pro-PhiP theory is used to account for both violations. Through applying this theory to the St’át’imcets violations, numerous issues are found and presented.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Syntax; Binding Theory; Condition C; pro-PhiP</em></p> Zia van Blankenstein Copyright (c) 2021 Zia van Blankenstein Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 A Case study of using <em>we</em> for speaker affiliation in a first-year-composition writing conference talk <p>This research study attempts to qualitatively investigate the indexically situated functions of one person deixis in English, <em>we</em>, vis-à-vis the establishment of speaker roles, voices, and affiliations in a one-on-one writing conference talk (WCT). By appropriating the analytic model of speaker roles and voicing in <em>narratives</em>—narrator, character, and interlocutor (e.g., Koven, 2011, 2016)—informed by Bakhtinian view grounded in dialogic notion of voice (Prior, 2001), this research study furthers the discussion of how co-participation in and of a one-on-one WCT itself is tethered to the deployment of <em>we</em> that <em>is</em> and <em>becomes</em> heteroglossic. The participants’ voicing and their speaker roles illuminated through a grounded and narrative methodology adopted in this study offer a radical alternative to structuralist, systematized notions of fixed form-referentiality typologies of English person-deictics. What is discovered in the study regarding the indexical meanings of <em>we</em> include: heuristics for evaluation and suggestions, device for the bridging of epistemic asymmetry, apparatus for time-travel, and proposal of hypothetical scenarios. Thus, the one-dimensional, structuralist view of an indexical linguistic sign engaged in a complex writing conference interactional talk belies a more complicated, re-occurring <em>narrativization</em> (Wortham, 2001) that permits co-participants therein to straddle past, current, and hypothetical expressions of trains of thoughts, engagements, and identities through the intertextuality of <em>we</em> and its indexical traces. This research study concludes by discussing theoretical considerations and implications specifically for WCTs and globally for writing studies scholarship.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Writing conference talk; dyadic interaction; voicing and speaker roles; identity co-construction</em></p> Meng-Hsien (Neal) Liu Copyright (c) 2021 Meng-Hsien (Neal) Liu Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 An Optimality Theory account of the D-Effect in Ahtna <p>The D-effect is a well-studied phonological alternation in Dene languages and occurs when the D- classifier prefix precedes a consonant-initial verb stem. This paper analyzes the D-effect in Ahtna using the framework of Optimality Theory. In this paper, it is demonstrated that in Ahtna coalescence and syllable structure are used to preserve the input segments and their features in the output. It is demonstrated that a pattern that at first glance appears to be deletion, is another form of coalescence known as ‘vacuous coalescence.’ In Ahtna, full coalescence being the fusion of two segments without loss of features occurs when the resulting segment is permitted in the inventory of Ahtna. If this is not possible, then Ahtna uses syllabification and vacuous coalescence to preserve the segments. This analysis further adds data to the prediction of the D-effect in Ahtna for the patterns found in the language.</p> <p class="abst-wplc"><em>Keywords: D-effect; Dene languages; coalescence; Optimality Theory</em></p> Margaret Lyster Copyright (c) 2021 Margaret Lyster Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Implicit bias and perception of accent <p>This study explores our underlying, unconscious attitudes towards foreign accents. Italian and Mandarin accents were compared in order to determine whether there is a common preference amongst Western Canadian participants. Implicit bias was measured using an Implicit Association Test, in which participants associated each accent with positive words as quickly as possible and reaction times were recorded. A survey was also taken to examine participants’ conscious attitudes towards the accents and compare them with their implicit biases. The survey results showed no preference for one accent or the other, with overall averages of 2.63 for Mandarin accents and 2.65 for Italian accents. The results of the IAT revealed that implicitly, Italian accents were preferred, having an average reaction time of 1528.68ms while Mandarin accents had an average reaction time of 1657.02ms. Implicitly, 16 participants preferred Italian accents, while only 4 participants preferred Mandarin accents. The results of this study suggest an underlying preference for Italian accents over Mandarin accents in Western Canadian society.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Implicit bias; sociophonetics; nonnative accents; Mandarin; Italian</em></p> Lydia MacNair Copyright (c) 2021 Lydia MacNair Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Case study: Child language project <p>The following report analyzes English child speech from a video (Sims, 2014) and consists of the following three sections: phonetics and phonology; vocabulary and morphology; as well as syntax, pragmatics, and sociolinguistics. The transcription of the video in both IPA and English is included in the Appendix for reference. The purpose of this report is to simply analyze English child speech to gain experience for further child speech analyses and therefore no predictions or research questions are present.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Child language; child speech; case study</em></p> Aliya Zhaksybek Copyright (c) 2021 Aliya Zhaksybek Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Learning Indigenous methodologies <p>This paper recounts the author’s own experiences as they relate to some of the key principles in the literature about Indigenous thinking and methodologies for research, learning, and teaching. Since story and situating the researcher are two Indigenous methodologies, the paper is organised around five stories of the author’s experiences learning Indigenous methodologies as she worked with an Indigenous community in Cameroon. The stories illustrate the Indigenous methodologies of relationships and decolonising, language and land, spirituality and healing, process, connectedness, and music and finally, team, respect and transformation. &nbsp;Purpose and responsibility for the outcomes of the research are discussed in a section that looks back over her whole experience. The paper ends with a challenge to academia to adopt Indigenous methodologies in research.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Indigenous methodologies; Indigenous ways of teaching and learning; Indigenous research methodologies; story</em></p> Dianne Friesen Copyright (c) 2021 Dianne Friesen Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 The determiner phrases in East Asian learner English <p>This paper aims to assist trainee or novice ESL teachers who have some knowledge of linguistic theory but little or no knowledge about the grammar of discourse- or topic-oriented languages with no article and null pronouns, including Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Proposing an activation model for DP in these Asian languages, the properties between English determiner phrases (DP), including articles, pronouns, demonstratives, and (alienable) possessives, are compared with those in the East Asian languages. The conscious awareness of explicit knowledge about the grammar of DP in two typologically distinct languages will provide additional benefits to the teachers’ teaching in Asian contexts.</p> <p class="abst-wplc"><em>Keywords: Determiner phrase, explicit knowledge, East Asian language learners, English as second language</em></p> Hyekyeong Ceong Copyright (c) 2021 Hyekyeong Ceong Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 A note on how weaving and knitting can enhance learning Salish reduplication patterns <p>There is a dearth of research on how learners acquire reduplication patterns in the Indigenous languages of North America. Additionally, most approaches to teaching reduplication (a process in which meaning is expressed by copying part of the word) utilize abstract concepts from linguistics to explain how to derive a reduplicated word from a base word. This paper outlines some strategies for incorporating key concepts from weaving and knitting into developing pedagogical materials for learning Salish reduplication patterns.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Reduplication; pedagogy; Salish</em></p> Suzanne Urbanczyk Copyright (c) 2021 Suzanne Urbanczyk Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700