The Arbutus Review 2020-01-23T14:22:04-08:00 Gillian Saunders Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Arbutus Review</em> is an annual peer-reviewed compilation of outstanding research papers/articles submitted by undergraduate students from all disciplines at the University of Victoria. It provides a forum for the best researchers to showcase the strength of student researchers to their fellow students, the campus community, high schools, funding agencies and corporations/organizations.</p> <p>We acknowledge with respect the Lekwungen-speaking peoples on whose traditional territory the university stands and the Songhees, Esquimalt and <span style="text-decoration: underline;">W</span>SÁNEĆ peoples whose historical relationships with the land continue to this day.</p> Acknowledgements 2020-01-23T14:22:01-08:00 Shailoo Bedi <p>Acknowledgements</p> 2019-10-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Big Daddy Lives or Don’t Say the F Word: Intersectional Feminist Directing in Theory and in Practice 2020-01-23T14:22:03-08:00 Lauren Kathleen Frost <p>As a theatre and gender studies double major at the University of Victoria, I have been able<br>to critically think about the ways each of my fields of study could benefit the other. In my<br>experience, many courses in the UVic Department of Theatre generally focus on dramatic texts and<br>theoretical literature written by white men. Consequently, contributions to the theatre by women,<br>people of colour, and/or non-Western theatre practitioners are largely dismissed or ignored. My<br>frustration with this pattern was what led me to create <em>Big Daddy Lives or Don’t Say the F Word</em>,<br>a part scripted, part devised performance piece that staged scenes from classic and contemporary<br>plays using directing theory written by feminists, for feminists. I curated the excerpts, wrote the<br>transition-text, and directed the play using an intersectional feminist framework. The project was<br>an experiment in applying intersectional feminism to theatre directing in order to critique the way<br>the male-dominated canon of plays and theories shapes theatre education. Through this project, I<br>found that intersectional feminist directing techniques foster collaboration; encourage discussion<br>and mutual education about identity, oppression, and representation; and can be applied to the<br>production of both classics and contemporary feminist plays and to the creation of new work by an<br>ensemble.</p> 2019-10-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Fall of the Family-State and Rise of the Enterprise Society: Family as Ideology and Site of Conservative Power in Modern Japan 2020-01-23T14:22:02-08:00 Julian Brook Ruszel <p>Recent literature on the history of family in Japan reveals that what is commonly understood as the “traditional” Japanese family—called the <em>ie</em> family—is largely a political construct that was institutionalized in Japan’s Meiji period (1868–1912). While the <em>ie</em> model was effectively removed from the US-imposed postwar constitution and replaced with the western nuclear family as the new ideal, this historical analysis reveals that the neo-Confucian principles and social structures of the <em>ie</em> model were reintegrated into Japan’s company work culture, to the degree that the <em>ie</em> continued to shape Japan’s collectivist social structures and identities well beyond the end of the war. This analysis highlights key ideologies employed by the ruling elite in modern Japan as a means of social control and nation building. It demonstrates a continuation of the historically close relationship between family and the state in postwar Japan that challenges deterministic notions of westernization applied to the Japanese context; it highlights articulations of family that complicate culturally bound conceptions that see it as inherently separate from the state, and clarifies the modern history of collectivist society in Japan.</p> 2019-10-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Sweet Sounds of Syntax: Music, Language, and the Investigation of Hierarchical Processing 2020-01-23T14:22:04-08:00 Lee Whitehorne <p>Language and music are uniquely human faculties, defined by a level of sophistication found only<br>in our species. The ability to productively combine contrastive units of sound, namely words in<br>language and notes in music, underlies much of the vast communicative and expressive capacities of<br>these systems. Though the intrinsic rules of syntax in language and music differ in many regards,<br>they both lead to the construction of complex hierarchies of interconnected, functional units. Much<br>research has examined the overlap, distinction, and general neuropsychological nature of syntax<br>in language and music but, in comparison to the psycholinguistic study of sentence processing,<br>musical structure has been regarded at a coarse level of detail, especially in terms of hierarchical<br>dependencies. The current research synthesizes recent ideas from the fields of generative music theory,<br>linguistic syntax, and neurolinguistics to outline a more detailed, hierarchy-based methodology for<br>investigating the brain’s processing of structures in music.</p> 2019-10-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tearing the Fabric: a Critique of Materialism 2020-01-23T14:22:03-08:00 Passia Pandora <p>One of the long-standing questions in the field of philosophy of mind is called the mind-body problem.<br>The problem is this: given that minds and mental properties appear to be vastly different than<br>physical objects and physical properties, how can the mind and body relate to and interact with each<br>other? Materialism is the currently preferred response to philosophy’s classic mind-body problem.<br>Most contemporary philosophers of mind accept a materialist perspective with respect to the nature<br>of reality. They believe that there is one reality and it is physical. One of the primary problems<br>with materialism has to do with the issue of physical reduction, that is, if everything is physical,<br>how does the mental reduce to the physical? I argue that the materialistic model is problematic<br>because it cannot sufficiently explain the reduction problem. Specifically, the materialist model does<br>not account for our subjective experience, including qualia. I also consider the question of why the<br>materialist stance is so entrenched, given all the problems with the reduction problem that have<br>been raised. I argue that the paradigmatic influence of materialism explains the puzzling conclusions<br>drawn by philosophers. In closing, I argue that the failure of materialist perspectives to explain<br>reduction is our invitation to take a fresh look at the alternatives.</p> <p>In support of my position, I will consider the reduction problem in two sections. In the first section I will present some contemporary arguments put forth by Jaegwon Kim, Ned Block, Thomas Nagel, John Searle, David Chalmers, Frank Jackson and Roger Penrose. These contemporary arguments address four different reduction problems. Although the arguments presented by Kim, Block, Searle, Nagel, Chalmers, Jackson and Penrose are compelling, I will argue that their arguments have not succeeded in altering the mainstream materialist viewpoint.</p> <p>In the second section of this paper, I will address three of my concerns regarding the reduction issue, i.e., 1) concerns regarding unresolved issues with respect to the reduction problem, 2) concerns that materialism cannot account for common characteristics of our mental experience 3) concerns regarding the validity of the materialist stance in general. In closing, I will argue that the failure of materialist perspectives to conclusively explain mind and consciousness is our invitation to take a fresh look at the alternatives.</p> <p>mind-body problem; materialism; physical reduction; qualia; point-of-view</p> 2019-10-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Promise of Intergenerational Choir for Improving Psychosocial and Cognitive Health for those with Dementia: The Voices in Motion Project 2020-01-23T14:22:02-08:00 Nicholas Tamburri Michaella Trites Debra Sheets Andre Smith Stuart MacDonald <p>Rates of dementia continue to increase along with life expectancy. As neither dementia’s cause<br>nor its cure is well understood from the perspective of medical science, further investigations of<br>complementary lifestyle and non-pharmaceutical interventions are imperative. Although arts-based<br>therapies have been explored selectively, the significance of these interventions for persons with<br>dementia (PwD) remains undervalued in both the general population and scientific literature. This<br>study aims to examine one promising lifestyle intervention, the effect of intergenerational choir<br>participation, on psychosocial and cognitive function for PwD. Participants (n = 32), in partnership<br>with their family caregivers and local high school students, participated in an intergenerational choir<br>for as many as three choir seasons spanning up to 18 months of follow-up. Participants underwent an<br>expansive assessment of psychosocial, physiological, and cognitive function every four to six weeks<br>as part of an intensive repeated measures design. Here, the potential benefits of choir for PwD were<br>explored in relation to change for select cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination: MMSE; Trail<br>Making Task A: TMT-A; Word Recall) and psychosocial (Patient Health Questionnaire: PHQ-9)<br>indicators. Multilevel modelling was used to index initial levels (at baseline) and change (spanning<br>up to eight follow-up assessments) in function for measures of global cognition, executive functioning,<br>episodic memory, and depressive symptoms. Notably, no significant declines were observed for MMSE<br>or TMT-A tasks. As expected, episodic memory function continued to decline, with a significant<br>lessening of depressive symptoms and signs observed for the PHQ-9. These results suggest that<br>despite the progressive nature of underlying neuropathology for dementia subtypes like Alzheimer’s<br>Disease, preservation of select cognitive functions as well as mitigation of psychosocial comorbidities<br>(depressive symptoms) is possible through participation in an intergenerational choir.</p> 2019-10-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Floral Longevity and Attraction of Arctic Lupine, Lupinus arcticus: Implications for Pollination Efficiency 2020-01-23T14:22:04-08:00 Clara Reid <p>Pollination by insects is a mutualistic relationship in which flowers receive pollen for reproduction while pollinators are rewarded with pollen or nectar. Floral longevity (the period an individual flower blooms) and floral attraction (the period during which pollinators are attracted to the flower, often indicated by petal colour) both play prominent roles in plant and pollinator success. This study investigated whether floral longevity and floral attraction were mediated by pollination type in arctic lupine (<em>Lupinus arcticus</em> S. Wats.), a common herbaceous perennial in northwestern North America. Flowers were either open to pollinators, cross-pollinated by hand, or bagged to prevent cross-pollination, and floral longevity, seed set, and flower colour were observed. Open and hand-pollinated flowers had significantly shorter floral longevities and higher percent fruit sets than bagged flowers. A colour change of the banner petal marking from white to pink occurred in some flowers and was a signal of floral attraction, as pollinators preferentially visited pre-change flowers. Pre-change flowers contained more pollen and were less likely to have been injured by herbivory than post-change flowers, yet the colour change was not related to pollination type or fruit set. Pollination-induced shortening of floral longevity is likely an adaptation to limited plant resources and pollinator visitation rates. For <em>L. arcticus</em>, this could be influenced by short growing seasons and low annual temperatures in the study area. In the face of climatic changes and shifting species phenologies, the mediation of floral longevity by pollinators could decrease temporal mismatch between plants and their pollinators, yet the many factors at play make this difficult to accurately predict. &nbsp;</p> 2019-10-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##