The Arbutus Review 2019-09-15T17:23:37-07:00 Gillian Saunders Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Arbutus Review</em> is an annual peer-reviewed compilation of outstanding research papers/articles submitted by undergraduate students from all disciplines at the University of Victoria. It provides a forum for the best researchers to showcase the strength of student researchers to their fellow students, the campus community, high schools, funding agencies and corporations/organizations.</p> <p>We acknowledge with respect the Lekwungen-speaking peoples on whose traditional territory the university stands and the Songhees, Esquimalt and <span style="text-decoration: underline;">W</span>SÁNEĆ peoples whose historical relationships with the land continue to this day.</p> Acknowledgements 2019-09-15T17:23:37-07:00 Shailoo Bedi Acknowledgements 2018 2018-09-25T17:26:56-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Being as Value: The Phenomenology of Value and the Ontology of Self-Realization in Charles Taylor’s Sources of the Self 2019-09-15T17:23:36-07:00 Andrada-Elena Holmgren <p>This paper explores one way of putting selves and values back into the world. I analyze Charles Taylor’s, Iris Murdoch’s, and Donald Walhout’s arguments showing that to be a self is to relate to being as a value. I show that the intentional relation of world-directedness that is central to self discloses being first as a value. I argue that our best account of what it is to be a self commits us to the objectivity of values. </p><p>I then explore Taylor’s arguments that, by denying a place for objective values in nature, the standard naturalist ontology leaves a gap between nature and self. I argue that this gap arises because current naturalism cannot account for the place of the intentional relation, which is our first guide to value, in the world. It thereby leaves a gap between third- and first-personal perspectives that obscures the nature of values as properties of relational situations. I explore Michiel Meijer’s objection that Taylor leaves an unresolved gap between ontology and phenomenology in his defense of value realism. I draw on the little-known work of Donald Walhout to show how this gap can be filled by analyzing value in terms of function.</p><p> </p> 2018-09-25T17:26:57-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Native versus invasive crab effluent effects on byssal thread production in the mussel, Mytilus trossulus (Gould, 1950) 2019-09-15T17:23:36-07:00 Rachel Rickaby Jeanine Sinclair <p>Mussels have evolved many adaptations to protect themselves, including the production of byssal threads. These are strong, proteinaceous fibres that mussels secrete to adhere themselves to rocks, preventing detachment by waves and predators. These byssal threads may be strengthened if mussels can recognize potential threats, such as native crabs, as their populations have a long history of coevolution. Unfortunately, the introduction of invasive predators poses a challenge for prey, which may not be capable of recognizing them. In this study, byssal thread production in the Pacific blue mussel (<em>Mytilus trossulus</em> ) was observed when exposed to effluent from the native red rock crab (<em>Cancer productus</em>) or the invasive European Green crab (<em>Carcinus maenas</em>). <em>M. trossulus</em>  were placed in closed systems with effluent from either <em>C. productus</em> , <em>C. maenas</em>  or control (no predator), over a 24-hour time period. Final measurements of number, length and diameter of byssal threads were recorded. <em>M. trossulus</em>  exposed to effluent from <em>C. productus</em> produced byssal threads at a statistically significantly faster rate than in the control group over the first 7.5 hours. <em>M. trossulus</em> exposed to effluent from <em>C. maenas</em>  produced byssal threads at a statistically significantly faster rate than both the <em>C. productus </em>and control groups. However, after 24 hours, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean number of byssal threads for any treatment. Additionally, we found no statistically significant difference between the mean diameter of byssal threads produced or length of byssal threads produced for any treatment.</p><p> </p> 2018-09-25T17:26:57-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Women in Weed: Gender, Race, and Class in the Cannabis Industry 2019-09-15T17:23:35-07:00 Jacqueline Kittel The legitimate cannabis industry is in its developmental stages across North America, leading some to claim that this industry will be a "blue skies market for women" where they will have unfettered opportunities to take on influential and entrepreneurial roles. This discourse, however, ignores the reality that the cannabis industry is just as shaped by gender and intersectional inequalities as other more established industries. Drawing on interviews with five women leaders from various cannabis sectors in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia, I explore how gender, racialization, and class operate in this increasingly corporatized sector and how white, heteronormative femininity has been used to normalize cannabis consumption 2018-09-25T17:26:58-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Low Cost Radiation Hardened Software and Hardware Implementation for CubeSats 2019-09-15T17:23:35-07:00 Brosnan Yuen Mihai Sima <p>CubeSats are small satellites used for scientific experiments because they cost less than full sized satellites. Each CubeSat uses an on-board computer. The on-board computer performs sensor measurements, data processing, and CubeSat control. The challenges of designing an on-board computer are costs, radiation, thermal stresses, and vibrations. An on-board computer was designed and implemented to solve these challenges. The on-board computer used special components to mitigate radiation effects. Software was also used to provide redundancies in cases of faults. This paper may aid future spacecraft design as it improves the reliability of spacecraft, while keeping costs low.</p> 2018-09-25T17:26:59-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Congruency on Bereitschaftspotential While Performing a Bimanual Motor Task 2019-09-15T17:23:34-07:00 Meghan McGowan Camille Hémond-Hill Justine Nakazawa <p> The bereitschaftspotential (BP)—also known as the readiness potential—is a measure of brain activity that precedes voluntary movement by approximately one second in the supplementary motor area and the contralateral primary motor cortex. Motor task reaction time for bimanual task performance is affected by both the individual and the environment; however, it is unclear whether motor task reaction time (as measured via the BP) is significantly affected by congruency. A congruent motor task is an ipsilateral stimulus (e.g., a stimulus on the right is responded to by the right hand), and an incongruent task is a contralateral stimulus (e.g., a stimulus on the right is responded to by the left hand). Congruency is re-emerging as an important topic in motor learning as it may require different levels of cortical processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of congruency on the BP. Participants were asked to complete the computer task, Keyboard Hero, where they pressed keys with both their left and right hands in response to discrete congruent and incongruent stimuli. A MUSE™  apparatus recorded brain activity 1000 ms prior to, and 1000 ms after each stimulus. Results from every participant for the incongruent and congruent trials were averaged and compared using a grand average waveform. Means of accuracy (how often participants pressed the key correctly) and BP for each condition were averaged and compared using a 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Across congruent and incongruent conditions, a non-significant difference (p &gt; 0.05 ) was found in BP (p &gt; 0.59 ), accuracy (p &gt; 0.64 ), and BP within −200  ms to 200 ms (p &gt; 0.31 ). BP and mean accuracy scores were not significantly different between congruent and incongruent conditions, which may be due to only minute differences in brain activity or due to the study’s design. Further research should analyze individual variations of the present study, such as stimulus location, differences in the responding limb, correctness of responses, and the sensory modality being tested</p> 2018-09-25T17:26:59-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Swimming and Diving in Grandpa's River: A Promise of Help with Respect to Water on Halalt Territory 2019-09-15T17:23:34-07:00 Michael Graeme <p>Drawing on media reports, court proceedings, and ethnographic literature, this paper explores contentions between the Halalt First Nation and the Municipality of North Cowichan regarding rights and access to the Chemainus Aquifer. Using a well project proposed by the municipality as a focus, I describe colonial power dynamics and argue that a decolonizing shift is needed in law and society to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous ways of using and regulating resources on unceded Coast Salish territory.</p><p> </p> 2018-09-25T17:27:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##