The Arbutus Review https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus <p>The <em>Arbutus Review</em> is an annual peer-reviewed compilation of outstanding research papers/articles submitted by undergraduate students from all disciplines at the University of Victoria. It provides a forum for the best researchers to showcase their work to their fellow students, the campus community, high schools, funding agencies and corporations/organizations about the strength of student researchers.</p> <p>We acknowledge with respect the Lekwungen-speaking peoples on whose traditional territory the university stands and the Songhees, Esquimalt and <span style="text-decoration: underline;">W</span>SÁNEĆ peoples whose historical relationships with the land continue to this day.</p> University of Victoria en-US The Arbutus Review 1923-1334 <p><span><span style="line-height: 140%;"> </span></span></p><p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors contributing to the <em><span>Artbutus Review</span></em> agree to release their articles under the </span><span style="line-height: 140%;"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank"><span style="color: purple;">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Unported</span></a><span style="color: black;"> license. This licence allows anyone to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. </span></span></p><p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal right of first publication.</span></p><p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</span></p><p> </p> Acknowledgements https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus/article/view/18380 Acknowledgements 2018 Shailoo Bedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 9 1 1 3 10.18357/tar91201818380 Being as Value: The Phenomenology of Value and the Ontology of Self-Realization in Charles Taylor’s Sources of the Self https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus/article/view/18381 <p>This paper explores one way of putting selves and values back into the world. I analyze Charles Taylor’s, Iris Murdoch’s, and Donald Walhout’s arguments showing that to be a self is to relate to being as a value. I show that the intentional relation of world-directedness that is central to self discloses being first as a value. I argue that our best account of what it is to be a self commits us to the objectivity of values. </p><p>I then explore Taylor’s arguments that, by denying a place for objective values in nature, the standard naturalist ontology leaves a gap between nature and self. I argue that this gap arises because current naturalism cannot account for the place of the intentional relation, which is our first guide to value, in the world. It thereby leaves a gap between third- and first-personal perspectives that obscures the nature of values as properties of relational situations. I explore Michiel Meijer’s objection that Taylor leaves an unresolved gap between ontology and phenomenology in his defense of value realism. I draw on the little-known work of Donald Walhout to show how this gap can be filled by analyzing value in terms of function.</p><p> </p> Andrada-Elena Holmgren ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 9 1 4 19 10.18357/tar91201818381 Native versus invasive crab effluent effects on byssal thread production in the mussel, Mytilus trossulus (Gould, 1950) https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus/article/view/18384 <p>Mussels have evolved many adaptations to protect themselves, including the production of byssal threads. These are strong, proteinaceous fibres that mussels secrete to adhere themselves to rocks, preventing detachment by waves and predators. These byssal threads may be strengthened if mussels can recognize potential threats, such as native crabs, as their populations have a long history of coevolution. Unfortunately, the introduction of invasive predators poses a challenge for prey, which may not be capable of recognizing them. In this study, byssal thread production in the Pacific blue mussel (<em>Mytilus trossulus</em> ) was observed when exposed to effluent from the native red rock crab (<em>Cancer productus</em>) or the invasive European Green crab (<em>Carcinus maenas</em>). <em>M. trossulus</em>  were placed in closed systems with effluent from either <em>C. productus</em> , <em>C. maenas</em>  or control (no predator), over a 24-hour time period. Final measurements of number, length and diameter of byssal threads were recorded. <em>M. trossulus</em>  exposed to effluent from <em>C. productus</em> produced byssal threads at a statistically significantly faster rate than in the control group over the first 7.5 hours. <em>M. trossulus</em> exposed to effluent from <em>C. maenas</em>  produced byssal threads at a statistically significantly faster rate than both the <em>C. productus </em>and control groups. However, after 24 hours, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean number of byssal threads for any treatment. Additionally, we found no statistically significant difference between the mean diameter of byssal threads produced or length of byssal threads produced for any treatment.</p><p> </p> Rachel Rickaby Jeanine Sinclair ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 9 1 20 31 10.18357/tar91201818384 Women in Weed: Gender, Race, and Class in the Cannabis Industry https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus/article/view/18385 The legitimate cannabis industry is in its developmental stages across North America, leading some to claim that this industry will be a "blue skies market for women" where they will have unfettered opportunities to take on influential and entrepreneurial roles. This discourse, however, ignores the reality that the cannabis industry is just as shaped by gender and intersectional inequalities as other more established industries. Drawing on interviews with five women leaders from various cannabis sectors in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia, I explore how gender, racialization, and class operate in this increasingly corporatized sector and how white, heteronormative femininity has been used to normalize cannabis consumption Jacqueline Kittel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 9 1 32 45 10.18357/tar91201818385 Low Cost Radiation Hardened Software and Hardware Implementation for CubeSats https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus/article/view/18386 <p>CubeSats are small satellites used for scientific experiments because they cost less than full sized satellites. Each CubeSat uses an on-board computer. The on-board computer performs sensor measurements, data processing, and CubeSat control. The challenges of designing an on-board computer are costs, radiation, thermal stresses, and vibrations. An on-board computer was designed and implemented to solve these challenges. The on-board computer used special components to mitigate radiation effects. Software was also used to provide redundancies in cases of faults. This paper may aid future spacecraft design as it improves the reliability of spacecraft, while keeping costs low.</p> Brosnan Yuen Mihai Sima ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 9 1 46 62 10.18357/tar91201818386 Effects of Congruency on Bereitschaftspotential While Performing a Bimanual Motor Task https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus/article/view/18387 <p> The bereitschaftspotential (BP)—also known as the readiness potential—is a measure of brain activity that precedes voluntary movement by approximately one second in the supplementary motor area and the contralateral primary motor cortex. Motor task reaction time for bimanual task performance is affected by both the individual and the environment; however, it is unclear whether motor task reaction time (as measured via the BP) is significantly affected by congruency. A congruent motor task is an ipsilateral stimulus (e.g., a stimulus on the right is responded to by the right hand), and an incongruent task is a contralateral stimulus (e.g., a stimulus on the right is responded to by the left hand). Congruency is re-emerging as an important topic in motor learning as it may require different levels of cortical processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of congruency on the BP. Participants were asked to complete the computer task, Keyboard Hero, where they pressed keys with both their left and right hands in response to discrete congruent and incongruent stimuli. A MUSE™  apparatus recorded brain activity 1000 ms prior to, and 1000 ms after each stimulus. Results from every participant for the incongruent and congruent trials were averaged and compared using a grand average waveform. Means of accuracy (how often participants pressed the key correctly) and BP for each condition were averaged and compared using a 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Across congruent and incongruent conditions, a non-significant difference (p &gt; 0.05 ) was found in BP (p &gt; 0.59 ), accuracy (p &gt; 0.64 ), and BP within −200  ms to 200 ms (p &gt; 0.31 ). BP and mean accuracy scores were not significantly different between congruent and incongruent conditions, which may be due to only minute differences in brain activity or due to the study’s design. Further research should analyze individual variations of the present study, such as stimulus location, differences in the responding limb, correctness of responses, and the sensory modality being tested</p> Meghan McGowan Camille Hémond-Hill Justine Nakazawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 9 1 63 79 10.18357/tar91201818387 Swimming and Diving in Grandpa's River: A Promise of Help with Respect to Water on Halalt Territory https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/arbutus/article/view/18388 <p>Drawing on media reports, court proceedings, and ethnographic literature, this paper explores contentions between the Halalt First Nation and the Municipality of North Cowichan regarding rights and access to the Chemainus Aquifer. Using a well project proposed by the municipality as a focus, I describe colonial power dynamics and argue that a decolonizing shift is needed in law and society to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous ways of using and regulating resources on unceded Coast Salish territory.</p><p> </p> Michael Graeme ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 9 1 80 95 10.18357/tar91201818388