Borders in Globalization Review <p><em>BIG_Review</em>&nbsp;provides an open-access forum for academic and creative explorations of the changing logics of borders in the 21st century.&nbsp;Our interest is advancing high-quality and original works in the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences, that explore various aspects of borders in an increasingly globalized world. The journal is committed to peer review, public access, policy relevance, and cultural significance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Victoria en-US Borders in Globalization Review 2562-9913 <ul> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a></span>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) that allows others to copy and redistribute the material, to remix, transform and bulid upon the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a></span>).</li> <li class="show">Artists may discuss alternative copyrights with the editors.&nbsp;&nbsp; <div id="copyrightNotice" class="copyright_notice">&nbsp;</div> <div id="privacyStatement" class="privacy_statement">&nbsp;</div> </li> </ul> Letter of Introduction <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The long-awaited and much anticipated new issue of <strong>Borders in Globalization Review</strong> is here! This outstanding collection of scholarship and artwork enriches border studies and cultural reflections on (and against) borders ...</span></p> Michael J Carpenter Copyright (c) 2023 Michael J Carpenter 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 6 6 10.18357/bigr42202321512 INTRODUCTION—Frontiers in Motion (Frontem): Comparative Perspectives on European Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation, and Integration <p class="p1">This special section, edited by the author, presents five articles developed from the Frontiers in Motion (Frontem) doctoral seminar held in Strasbourg, France, in October 2021, on “Borders in Motion: Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration”. The event was organized within the framework of the Jean Monnet Network, “Frontières en mouvement: quels modèles pour l’Union Européenne (Frontem)?” (“Frontiers in Motion: what models for the EU?”),<span class="s1"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></span>which aimed at fostering knowledge and practice exchanges on cross-border management models and various perceptions of borders across European (and North American) border regions. The diverse contributions illustrate the complexity of borders in Europe and that there has never been an abolition of all types and functions of borders in the European Union (EU). It therefore offers a critical reading of the “Europe without borders” model of the EU (Cooper 1989; Brunet-Jailly &amp; Wassenberg 2020).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;<br></span>Note: The network Frontières en mouvement: quels modèles pour l’UE? (611115-EPP-1-2019-1-FR-EPPJMO-NETWORK) is a Jean-Monnet Network supported by the EU’s Erasmus+ program for the period between 2019 and 2023 under the leadership of the author.</p> <p class="p1"><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Birte Wassenberg Copyright (c) 2023 Birte Wassenberg 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 4 2 8 13 10.18357/bigr42202321507 Integrative Organized Hypocrisy? Normative Contentions within the EU and the Refugee Migrant Crisis <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In 2015 and 2016, 2.3 million individuals applied for asylum in Europe, the highest number since the creation of the EU. The unprecedented strain on the Common European Asylum policies (CEAS), along with the asymmetric pressure on external border countries and the lack of unified support for border controls, highlighted the tensions between member-state sovereignty and regional competence. According to Lavenex (2018), the Refugee and Migrant Crisis (RMC) was first and foremost a crisis of governance, expressing doubts about the EU’s ability to “fail forward” into further integration in the long-run because of “organised hypocrisy”, an unintended organisational strategy deployed to cope with otherwise irreconcilable differences between normative aspirations and real-life actions concerning asylum. This article revisits Lavenex’s premise of European governance and organised hypocrisy and argues for a more optimistic outlook on European integration. Using the infrastructural Europeanism framework as identified by Pelizza and Loschi (2023), this article argues that despite the legal and legislative gridlocks that surround important issues such as asylum, European integration in relation to asylum is ‘failing forward’ in no small part due to organised hypocrisy and not in spite of it.</span></p> Claude Beaupré Copyright (c) 2023 Claude Beaupré 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 4 2 14 27 10.18357/bigr42202321075 Towards Norms and Sanctions: Interwar Franco–Belgian Border Conflict over the Insalubrity of French Factories <p class="p1">Downstream from the industrial French cities of Roubaix and Tourcoing, it took more than a century of exceptional insalubrity in the cross-border Espierre valley for France and Belgium to move towards the idea of adopting sanitary norms and sanctions to be imposed on French manufacturers. We propose to focus on the interwar period to try to understand the path that was followed for the different actors to agree on this idea. By tracing the history of an environmental controversy that was among the first to end up before an international jurisdiction, we highlight the important place this question had in the construction of Franco–Belgian border relations during a period of great tensions in Europe.</p> Yaël Gagnepain Copyright (c) 2023 Yaël Gagnepain 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 4 2 28 36 10.18357/bigr42202321064 Cross-Border Regional Languages: Picard and West Flemish at the Franco–Belgian Border <p class="p1">This article investigates the role of the Franco–Belgian border in regional language activism in the Hauts-de-France region in northern France, as well as whether activists perceive it as a resource for or obstacle to the valorisation or revitalisation of regional languages. Hauts-de-France, which was recently formed after the merger of two former regions, now recognises two regional languages: Picard and West Flemish. Both are considered endangered by UNESCO and are cross-border, in that both languages have also been historically spoken in parts of Belgium. Based on a study of the institutional context and fieldwork carried out with activists who promote these languages, the aim of this contribution is to highlight how activists perceive the border. The Franco-Belgian border is sometimes seen as an obstacle, sometimes as a resource on the West Flemish side, and more often ignored on the Picard side. This article stands midway between cultural geography and political geography, because one of the challenges of studying representations of the border is to understand the role it can play in activists’ strategies.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Nicolas Caput Copyright (c) 2023 Nicolas Caput 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 4 2 37 47 10.18357/bigr42202321063 Comparing Public Sector Innovation in Cross- Border Cooperation: A Set-Theoretic Approach <p class="p1">This article analyses innovation by developing and empirically applying the concept of public sector innovation in cross-border cooperation. The focus on intra- as well as inter-institutional characteristics provides a conceptual framework for identifying empirical differences and shared characteristics revealing different types of innovation. The proposed typology is operationalised with six dimensions and empirically applied to 24 cases in the two border regions on the island of Ireland and on the Upper Rhine. On an organisational level, four ideal types are developed, i.e. (1) managers of the status quo, (2) relational innovators, (3) organisational innovators, and (4) public sector innovators in cross-border cooperation. The results reveal empirical diversity of public sector innovation in cross-border cooperation and can be regarded as a starting point for the development of a systematic and generalisable description of public sector innovation in cross-border cooperation</p> Tobias Heyduk Copyright (c) 2023 Tobias Heyduk 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 4 2 48 60 10.18357/bigr42202321067 ‘Europe of the Regions’: From Slogan to Effects on European Union Borders and Regions <p class="p1">This article shows that the integrationist trend of ‘a Europe of the regions’ shapes the way the different scales of territories in the European Union are considered. Due to this trend, European institutions evolved their processes of legislation within the EU. Institutions are now able to promote cohesion between all scales of territory composing the European continent, including cross-border territories. Thus, this trend participates in the promotion of European integration by erasing or blurring the state borders that exist between these territories. However, a Europe of the regions is not the ultimate goal of the European Union, and the results of this trend can be mitigated. This article’s analysis is mainly structured around European law, including both primary and secondary law but also case law of the European Union Court of Justice. In order to strengthen its approach, the article also draws from other disciplines such as history and political science.</p> Morgane Chovet Copyright (c) 2023 Morgane Chovet 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 4 2 61 70 10.18357/bigr42202321053 Mapping the Wound: Feminine Gestures of Empathy and Healing <p>The Chief Editor’s Choice Portfolio features a curated collection of performance art and multimedia sculpture by an Israeli artist grappling with the wounds of settled land and settled bodies.</p> Ariane Littman Copyright (c) 2023 Ariane Littman 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 72 87 10.18357/bigr42202321513 Four Poems on Borders <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The poems presented here are part of the collection <em>Learning to Breathe</em>, written between 1983 and 1990, after the poet returned to Greece from medical studies in Rome, translated into English from the original Greek by Yannis Goumas.</span></p> Sotirios Pastakas Copyright (c) 2023 Sotirios Pastakas 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 89 93 10.18357/bigr42202321514 Borders <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This previously unpublished poem emerged after meeting a scholar of border studies at breakfast in the spring of 2023. I was amazed that so many academic careers could be defined by one word: Borders. I began to list all the borders and non-borders that came to mind and found I had written this list poem, embracing many of my own experiences.</span></p> Dvora Levin Copyright (c) 2023 Dvora Levin 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 94 96 10.18357/bigr42202321516 Embarked Lives <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>This selection for </em>BIG_Review<em> focuses on exile, but it is also linked to the idea of destiny. What marks a life? Irregularities and meaning. To the shipwrecked is induced a loss but also a reconstruction that can be significant to the immigrants but not only. In this way, Ramírez’s work can vibrate within us with its humanistic and poetic vision.</em> — Elisa Ganivet, Art &amp; Borders Editor. All images copyright the artist, </span>Enrique Ramírez. No reproductions without authorization.</p> Enrique Ramírez Copyright (c) 2023-07-21 2023-07-21 4 2 98 113 10.18357/bigr42202321359 One Hundred Years of US–Mexico Border Film <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This essay examines the structure, content, and evolution of an emerging Border Film Genre derived from an examination of over one hundred years of film concerned with the US–Mexico borderlands and originating from both sides of the border. The task of this particular essay is to demonstrate how film themes change and evolve over time, based on evidence from the film catalogue. The essay examines examples of transition pertaining to: the changing representations of women in film; the difference between Mexican and American filmmakers’ portrayals of undocumented migration; generational shifts in bordertown racisms; and the catastrophic consequences of law enforcement’s loss of the war against drug cartels, including the ‘domestication’ of violence and the decay of communities occupied by cartels.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Michael Dear Copyright (c) 2023 Michael Dear 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 115–120 115–120 10.18357/bigr42202321515 Home, by the River down that Valley, beyond that Fence <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This documentary fiction builds on lived experiences in the borderland district of Poonch, in the contested region of Jammu and Kashmir, administered by India along the contested border with Pakistan. The short story draws on fieldwork conducted between 2018 and 2020 as part of my PhD thesis and for </span><span class="s2">an article</span><span class="s1"> published in this journal. The characters and events in the essay are fictional but inspired by real-life people and history, based on informal conversations, unused data collection, and other reflections from the field that did not make it into my academic work. An inspiration for this approach is the writing of Gloria Anzaldua on the US–Mexico border. Her reflections demonstrate that lived experiences need not always fit established academic and disciplinary boundaries. Subjective narratives around partition and separation cannot be contained by any one disciplinary framework. The trauma, yearning, and loss within these experiences are so multifaceted that they can be expressed through various writing styles. It is time, I believe, that borderland studies encourage interpersonal accounts in disciplinary inquiries, following some of the steps taken in sociology and social anthropology.</span></p> Malvika Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Malvika Sharma 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 121 125 10.18357/bigr42202320994 ‘Nudging’ Voluntary Compliance in Border Customs <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Legal and regulatory compliance can be voluntarily motivated or enforced by authorities. The World Customs Organization Voluntary Compliance Frameworks (WCO VCF) is adopting a reward and punishment system, responsive to economic constraints of compliance. However, psychological elements do not appear to be incorporated. The WCO VCF could employ ‘norm nudge’ and ‘deterrence nudge’ as supplementary tools in responding to different client risk types, analogous to the effective application of nudge incentivization in taxation compliance. Similarly, it could help improve voluntary self-declaration of goods at the border crossing.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1">This policy report was developed from a paper for the 2022 BIG Summer Institute, Trade &amp; Customs Borders in the 21st Century, made possible by funding from the Korea Customs Service and support from the World Customs Organization.</p> Veasna Yong Copyright (c) 2023 Veasna Yong 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 127 131 10.18357/bigr42202321446 Trade Facilitation at the Peru–Chile Land Border: Policy Impact of Digital Importation and Prearrival Declarations <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This policy report examines the impact of the Peruvian Foreign Trade Public Policy implemented at the Santa Rosa Centre of Compliance (CAFSR) at the land border between Peru and Chile, presenting original research and quantitative analysis of statistics from the CAFSR at the Peruvian border collected by the National Superintendency of Customs and Tax Administration (SUNAT) from 2019 to 2022. The results show that customs compliance controls have been expedited, simplified, and modernised by both the digital importation process and mandatory prearrival customs declarations. However, the analysis calls for two further risk assessment strategies to be adopted by customs administrations in both countries. First, applying additional filters to identify fraud in prearrival customs declarations could expedite the release of low-risk consignments and help to ensure higher-risk consignments are subject to additional border restrictions. This paper suggests implementing an innovative blockchain technology that allows for the timely and accurate sharing of encrypted customs declarations to administrations in Peru and Chile. Second, upgrading infrastructure and logistics at the CAFSR could increase the capacity of the border post to facilitate increased binational trade.</span></p> <p class="p1">This policy report was developed from a paper for the 2022 BIG Summer Institute, Trade &amp; Customs Borders in the 21st Century, made possible by funding from the Korea Customs Service and support from the World Customs Organization.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mary Isabel Delgado-Caceres Copyright (c) 2023 Mary Isabel Delgado-Caceres 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 132 143 10.18357/bigr42202321355 Erasing the Line: Mapping Indigenous Community across the US–Canada Border <p class="p1"><span class="s1">North American settler colonialism is not a historical event, but an ongoing process that strives to silence the continued presence of the original Indigenous inhabitants in the United States and Canada. The map, Erasing the Line, attempts to challenge the primacy of existing sovereign states by showing contiguous Indigenous community across the US–Canada border. This subversive visualization is inspired by nationalist maps and uses official census data to challenge the settler state narrative from within.</span></p> Guntram Herb Vincent Falardeau Kathryn Talano Copyright (c) 2023 Guntram Herb, Vincent Falardeau, Kathryn Talano 2023-07-21 2023-07-21 4 2 145 147 10.18357/bigr42202320645 A 'Shadow Game' is Haunting Europe <p>A review of the film <em>Shadow Game</em> (2021).</p> Şeyma Saylak Copyright (c) 2023 Şeyma Saylak 2023-08-07 2023-08-07 4 2 149 150 10.18357/bigr42202321385 The Swimmers: Reflecting on Displacement, Migration, and the Politics of Exclusion <p>This film review reflects on displacement, migration, and the politics of exclusion within the biographical film <em>The Swimmers</em>, by Sally El Hosaini. This film effectively showcases the various temporalities of forced displacement, drawing attention to the various obstacles that Sara and Yusra Mardini experience prior to, during, and following their forced migration from Syria.&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> Natasha Sofia Martinez Copyright (c) 2023 Natasha Sofia Martinez 2023-08-07 2023-08-07 4 2 151 152 10.18357/bigr42202321145 Movements of Freedom in Stierl’s Migrant Resistance <p>A book review of Maurice Stierl's <em>Migrant Resistance in Contemporary Europe</em>, published by Routledge, 2019.</p> Michael J Carpenter Copyright (c) 2023 Michael J Carpenter 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 153 154 10.18357/bigr42202321517 Navigating the Medicine Line: A Review of Hogue’s Métis Borderlanders <p>A book review of Michael Hogue's <span class="s1"><em>Métis and the Medicine Line: Creating a Border and Dividing a People</em>, published by </span><span class="s1">University of Regina Press, 2015.</span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> Molly-Ann P. Taylor Copyright (c) 2023 Molly-Ann P. Taylor 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 4 2 155 156 10.18357/bigr42202321518