Borders in Globalization Review <p><em>BIG_Review</em>&nbsp;provides an open-access forum for academic and creative explorations of the changing logics of borders in the 21st century.&nbsp;Our interest is advancing high-quality and original works in the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences, that explore various aspects of borders in an increasingly globalized world. The journal is committed to peer review, public access, policy relevance, and cultural significance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Victoria en-US Borders in Globalization Review 2562-9913 <ul> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a></span>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) that allows others to copy and redistribute the material, to remix, transform and bulid upon the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a></span>).</li> <li class="show">Artists may discuss alternative copyrights with the editors.&nbsp;&nbsp; <div id="copyrightNotice" class="copyright_notice">&nbsp;</div> <div id="privacyStatement" class="privacy_statement">&nbsp;</div> </li> </ul> Letter of Introduction <p>A short overview of the issue by one of the journal's managing editors.</p> Stephanie Gruhlke Copyright (c) 2022 Stephanie Gruhlke 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 3 2 8 8 10.18357/bigr32202220823 Introduction: Mexico’s Southern Border and Beyond <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In this introduction, the editors of the special section situate the study of the Mexico–Guatemala border, lay out the themes of the collection, and summarize the individual contributions.</span></p> Jared P. Van Ramshorst Margath A. Walker Copyright (c) 2022 Jared P. Van Ramshorst, Margath A. Walker 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 3 2 11 13 10.18357/bigr32202220763 Subordinating Space: Immigration Enforcement, Hierarchy, and the Politics of Scale in Mexico and Central America <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In recent years, security and immigration enforcement has expanded rapidly throughout Mexico. From checkpoints and patrols to a vast system of detention and deportation, Mexican officials have implemented far-reaching measures to curtail international migration from Central America. Many of these efforts have been concentrated along the Mexico–Guatemala border and deep within southern Mexico, culminating in <em>Programa Frontera Sur,</em> a militarized approach to border security implemented in 2014. In this article, we explore how security and immigration enforcement in Mexico rely on spatial hierarchies that divide north and south. The practice of security and immigration enforcement has received significant attention across many disciplines. The notion of spatial hierarchies and the ways in which scalar differentiation impinges upon well-being has been less covered. As we show, these hierarchies partition North and Central America according to colonial modes, subordinating the latter as inferior while working across global, national, and local scales. Crucially, the linkages between securitization and the spatialization of hierarchies provide insights into nation-building and regional identity, where Mexico and the United States are increasingly designated as separate from South and Central America.</span></p> Jared Van Ramshorst Margath Walker Copyright (c) 2022 Margath Walker, Jared Van Ramshorst 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 3 2 14 25 10.18357/bigr32202220403 The More Things Change ... Governance and Resistance along the Mexico–Guatemala Border <p class="p1"><span class="s1">With the politics of borders, the socio-economic divide between the United States and Mexico is evident. The geographic proximity to the U.S. makes the Mexico–Guatemala border an extension of the U.S. border enforcement regime. This article argues that the politics surrounding the U.S.–Guatemala border have not necessarily changed, because, at the core, the main objective of these border governance practices is to stop the movement of undesirable bodies (Khosravi 2011). Further, the article argues that the practices of containment force migrants to resist through their movement and seek strategies of survival. By comparing the administrations of Peña Nieto and López Obrador (AMLO) and analyzing the survival strategy of migrant “caravans” through border policy analysis and fieldwork conducted in 2014, I show that this border is a site of struggle between the state’s power and migrants’ forms of resistance. I find that border tactics are influenced by U.S. border enforcement requirements of increased militarization and policing, but also aim to restrict and control certain populations. The result is the perpetual securitization of people and the militarization of pathways. Migrants, however, also employ forms of organizing such as travelling in mass groups to achieve safe passage, thus exercising their agency through movement. The bordering practices and the forms of resistance indicate that this border is a constant site of struggle that requires further examination.</span></p> Carla Angulo-Pasel Copyright (c) 2022 Carla Angulo-Pasel 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 3 2 26 37 10.18357/bigr32202220400 The Border-Development-Climate Change Nexus: Precarious Campesinos at the Selva Maya Mexico–Guatemala Border <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Borderlands can be places of socio-economic tensions, development challenges, and ecological risks, now exacerbated by climate change. We investigate the border-development-climate change nexus using research from Calakmul, Mexico and Petén, Guatemala, to detail the lived experiences and vulnerabilities of campesinos in the Selva Maya cross-border region. Our mixed methods approach combines historical analysis and ethnographic interviews with 70 campesinos. We demonstrate how large scale development approaches result in local and specific policy interventions, but produce mixed outcomes for campesinos, neglecting the most marginalized. Despite the absence of any major border crossings, a porous border in this area allows flows of people, goods, and services to connect the region, but there are differential national outcomes. In Petén, many campesinos suffer from ‘irregularity’ (lacking rights to the lands where they live and cultivate), preventing access to state development benefits. In Calakmul greater climate change demands adaptations beyond the scope of recent policy interventions. We consider how the border region includes biophysical processes as well as socio-political and cultural ones, and we argue that policy interventions are required at global, national, and local scales to address structural inequalities and co-create local solutions to development, migration, and climate change challenges.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Birgit Schmook Sofía Mardero Sophie Calmé Rehema White Claudia Radel Lindsey Carte Grecia Cassanova Jorge David Castelar Cayetano Juan Carlos Joo Chang Copyright (c) 2022 Birgit Schmook, Sofía Mardero, Sophie Calmé, Rehema White, Claudia Radel, Lindsey Carte, Grecia Cassanova, Jorge David Castelar Cayetano, Juan Carlos Joo Chang 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 3 2 38 52 10.18357/bigr32202220358 Israeli Policy Toward African Asylum Seekers and Unauthorized Migrants <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article sheds light on Israel’s practices against African asylum seekers and unauthorized immigrants. Since the mid-2000s, Israel has received a large influx of undocumented people from African countries. In order to curb unauthorized border crossings, Israel reached an agreement with Egypt for the return of unauthorized border crossers into Egypt, started building a border fence, and increased the number of detention centers. The 2012 amendment to the 1954 infiltration law made it so that any irregular border crosser was considered an infiltrator and therefore, detained. In 2015, Israel announced its forcible relocation policy. After examining asylum and migration dynamics in Israel and the governmental responses, this article identifies the pivotal roles played by Israeli human rights organizations and the Supreme Court in thwarting the government’s detention and forcible relocation policies.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Lacin Idil Oztig Copyright (c) 2022 Lacin Idil Oztig 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 3 2 53 64 10.18357/bigr32202220573 Bunker Mentalities: The Shifting Imaginaries of Albania’s Fortified Landscape <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Between 1967 and 1986, the Albanian government built an estimated 750,000 small and medium-sized military bunkers for defense purposes. These concrete constructions were spread across the country’s territory, with many concentrated along borders and beaches, in cities, and near key industries, strategic points, and transportation infrastructure. Long symbols of the communist regime, after it collapsed in 1991, the bunkers lost their purpose. As a result, both the narratives surrounding bunkers and their actual uses experienced significant transformations. Originally designed to control borders and instill fear in the population, bunkers have since been abandoned, destroyed, and graffitied, as might be expected. More notably, local entrepreneurs have transformed some bunkers into hotels or restaurants, while the state and non-profit organizations have turned others into commemorative sites that respectively glorify or expose the communist regime’s undertakings. Our ethnographic research into the discursive and material shifts to Albania’s fortified landscape, based on several field trips, interviews and investigations carried out between 2007 and 2017, identifies four contemporary “bunker mentalities” in Albania: indifference, derision, commodification, and commemoration.</span></p> Frédéric Lasserre Enkeleda Arapi Mia Bennett Copyright (c) 2022 Frédéric Lasserre 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 3 2 66 76 10.18357/bigr32202220783 The Social Life of Images <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Drawing on visual studies, this mixed-media portfolio explores the mixed culture of the US–Mexico border. Emerging around the turn of the millennium as a multidisciplinary study from such diverse fields as art history, aesthetics, film theory, cultural studies, media theory, visual culture, postcolonial studies, and gender studies, <em>visual studies</em> respond to the need to analyze an area of growing importance in contemporary societies: that of visuality. Therefore, I try to account, without disciplinary restrictions, the processes of production of cultural meaning that have their origin in the public circulation of images. I could, thus, describe my work as investigations into “the social life of images”, analyzing the processes of the cultural construction of visuality.</span></p> Mario Jimènez Dìaz Copyright (c) 2022 Mario Jimènez Dìaz 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 3 2 78 88 10.18357/bigr32202220787 A Gesture of Salt: Three Social Poems <p class="p2">The three poems presented here meditate in verse on the concept of migration as a consequence of war, poverty, neo-colonialism, and exploitation of the environment. “In Absence”, with its simple and composed structure, is a silent cry of hope. The poet describes one night on a refugees boat in the Mediterranean: one of many journeys of hope tainted by the shadows of future hardships and the sorrow of the memories left behind. Under it all there is the sea, the big mother and never sated monster.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p2">Today our cities are a melting pot of races and languages. Among the tangles of the urban landscape, the most fragile are often lost, forgotten. “Beyond the Gaze” offers a symbolic portrait of a neglected humanity, the migrants living too often at the borders of society with their crosses of wars and horrors on their shoulders (there is a hint to Jesus and mother Mary, for those who understand). Over this forgotten humanity, our distracted eyes barely notice anymore the TV news recounting other existential tragedies.</p> <p class="p3">From the first steps of mankind, people migrated, scattering around the world, mixing and differentiating themselves in different cultures and customs. “Transhumance” is a sort of laic prayer and a quiet reflection on migrations, crowds, loneliness, nature, and human landscape. The poems come from the Italian book <a href=""><em><span class="s2">Ossidiana</span></em></a>, published by Volturnia Edizioni in 2018 (translations into English by the poet).</p> Lucilla Trapazzo Copyright (c) 2022 Lucilla Trapazzo 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 3 2 90 93 10.18357/bigr32202220775 The Border of My Body <p class="p1">With my husband Miško Šuvakovi<span class="s2">ć</span>, I spent October 1998 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. It was a time when Serbia expected a NATO intervention, which happened in the spring the following year. I was intensively reading the selection of Slovenian poetry translated into Serbo-Croatian by the Slovenian-Bosnian poet, Josip Osti. As someone raised as a Yugoslavian by nationality, the wars in Yugoslavia were a personal drama. Inspired by Osti’s translations and the political situation, I wrote fourteen poems titled “Eseji o slobodi kretanja” (“Essays on the Freedom of Moving”). At the centre of most of these poems were the questions of borders in materiality and in our minds, and of the impossibility of moving through the new countries’ borders that appeared during and after the Yugoslavian wars. The emotional relationship to the war as well as the geopolitical and geocultural changes in this region are at the center of these poems. The two poems presented here were published in my collection of poetry, <em>All-Over</em> (Belgrade: Feminist 94, 2004).</p> Dubravka Djurić Copyright (c) 2022 Dubravka Djurić 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 3 2 94 96 10.18357/bigr32202220776 "Sarah Trouche, Performing Borders" / Sarah Trouche, performer les frontières <p class="p1">This essay discusses the performative work of Sarah <span class="s1">Trouche, whose meticulous field approach and bodily involvement at the edges of borders questions cultural rooting and geopolitical hazards.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Essai sur l’œuvre performative de Sarah Trouche, depuis une approche de terrain minutieuse, son implication corporelle aux abords des frontières interroge sur l’enracinement culturel et les aléas géopolitiques.</span></p> Madeleine Filippi Copyright (c) 2022 Madeleine Filippi 2022-06-11 2022-06-11 3 2 98 104 10.18357/bigr32202220778 Trois Regimes de Murs / Three Regimes of Walls <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Nous présentons</span><span class="s1">&nbsp;ici à titre cartographique, une approche de nos murs actuels, suggérant trois </span><span class="s3">types de murs de notre vie quotidienne qui </span><span class="s1">obéiraient chacun aux divers régimes qui les soutiennent</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This essay</span>&nbsp;<span class="s1">is a cartography, an approximation to our current walls, a postulation for the existence of three types of walls present in the quotidian, that comply at the same time with the diverse regimes that support them.</span></p> Alberto Pacheco Benites Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-11 2022-06-11 3 2 105 120 10.18357/bigr32202220777 El muro como objeto desde perspectivas Latinoamericanas / "The Wall as an Object from Latin-American Perspectives" <p class="p1"><span class="s1">En este texto, la coordinadora del proyecto internacional Objetos antes y después del muro presenta las prácticas artísticas que abordan de manera crítica el fenómeno de los muros fronterizos contemporáneos y los desplazamientos migratorios desde la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de noviembre de 1989, incluyendo perspectivas político-estéticas y el despliegue de nuevas identidades globales.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In this short text, the coordinator of the international project Objects Before and After the Wall introduces the reader to artistic practices that critically address contemporary border walls and migratory displacements since the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, including political-aesthetic perspectives and the deployment of new global identities.</span></p> Clara Bolívar Copyright (c) 2022 Clara Bolívar 2022-06-11 2022-06-11 3 2 121 126 10.18357/bigr32202220779 Propaganda: ‘Wire Mesh are Edge Decoration of States’ <p>A film review of the 1999 Turkish film <em>Propaganda</em>.</p> Hakan Ünay Copyright (c) 2022 Hakan Ünay 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 3 2 128 129 10.18357/bigr32202220509 Erasing Territorial Sovereignty: Bacurau <p>A film review of the 2019 Brazilian film <em>Bacurau</em>.</p> Edgar Garcia Velozo Caroline Schmidt Patricio Copyright (c) 2022 Edgar Garcia Velozo, Caroline Schmidt Patricio 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 3 2 130 131 10.18357/bigr32202219915 Of Connections and Flows: Homo Afghanicus is Homo Itinerans <p>A book review of <em><span class="s1">Homo Itinerans: Towards a Global Ethnography of Afghanistan.</span></em></p> Chayanika Saxena Copyright (c) 2022 Chayanika Saxena 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 3 2 132 133 10.18357/bigr32202220785 Reviewing Sanctuary City: A Suspended State <p>A book review of <em>Sanctuary City: A Suspended State.</em></p> Sam Kerr Copyright (c) 2022 Sam Kerr 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 3 2 134 135 10.18357/bigr32202220457