the ascendant historian <p><em>The Ascendant Historian</em> is a peer-reviewed undergraduate history journal seeking to publish the best scholarship produced by University of Victoria students concerning the past. We are interested in all methods and fields of inquiry.<br><br><strong>PLEASE SUBMIT ALL ESSAYS BY EMAIL: <a href=""></a> after reviewing the <a href="" target="_self">submission guidelines here</a>.</strong></p> University of Victoria en-US the ascendant historian 2291-5001 <p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors contributing to the <em>The Corvette</em> agree to release their articles under the </span><span style="line-height: 140%;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: purple;">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International&nbsp;</span></a><span style="color: black;">license. This licence allows anyone to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. </span></span></p> <p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal right of first publication.</span></p> <p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</span></p> Editor's Note Sophia Anderson Alec Lazenby Charlotte Clar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 1 1 1 Chair's Message Jason Colby ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 2 2 Islamist Discontent in the Sadat Years: Considering the Structures of Anti-Sadat Islamist Thought <p>This paper will consider the growing Islamist opposition to Anwar Sadat’s presidency in Egypt in the 1970s. It will explore the tenets for what became an extreme dimension of Islamism in the form of groups like Takfir wal-Hijrah and Egyptian Jihad, the latter being the organization of Sadat’s assassin Khalid Islambouli. This is done by tracing the ideological and social trajectories of Islamism in the country, and this paper engages with the thought of figures like Abd-as-Salam Faraj and Sayyid Qutb along with commentaries on their social and theological influence. Sadat’s own public comportment, policies like his Infitah (open door), and the accompanying sociological changes and economic malaise prompted a turn to Islamism and its potent ideological aspects by a disillusioned youth. In considering the interplay between ideology, structural realities, and Sadat’s government’s policies, this paper will demonstrate how the pervasive anti-Sadat sentiment from a crucial part of Egyptian society was realized.</p> Hamza Badsha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 5 14 From Destruction to Deliverance: Shifting Allied Policies for the Occupation of Germany 1944-1955 <p>In the wake of the Second World War the nations of the world wished to tear down and destroy Germany and its industrial capacity, dividing the nation up and imposing harsh policies upon it in an attempt to ‘denazify’ the country and to prevent it from ever achieving power again. Due to the destructive nature of these policies and rising tensions during the Cold War, Allied policy shifted to recovery and rehabilitation. By examining the division of Germany and the policies both proposed and imposed by the Allies, this paper seeks to examine the shift in Western Allied occupation policy from the demilitarization and denazification of Germany to policies of support and partnership. Moreover, the paper looks to analyze the extent to which harsh Western Allied occupation policies forced the Allies to eventually turn back on those policies and support the German economy to undo the damage which they had caused.</p> Jonah Burkart ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 15 24 The North British Society of Halifax, Nova Scotia And the Social Dominance of Imperial Scottishness <p>Over the course of the 19th century, Nova Scotia established a Scottish identity that was unique among the British Empire. Its Scottishness can be traced back to 1621, with the Royal Charter given to Sir William Alexander to establish a Scotch colony there. However, the region did not actually see a significant number of Scottish people until the early 19th century. The North British Society, established in 1768 in Halifax, worked to establish identifiable Scottish links that did not necessarily rely on ethnic connection with Scotland. This paper examines the role of the North British Society in Halifax during the latter half of the 19th century as an agent of imperial consolidation in the province. During the mid-Victorian era, when the percentage of ethnic Scots in Halifax lessened, the North British Society was active to promote the Scottish character of the city in a way that simultaneously reflected imperial loyalty. Thereby, the Society reflected a specific pan-imperial culture rooted in a mythic Scottishness.</p> Matthew Downey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 25 34 Nuns in the Kitchen: Conventual Cuisine in Colonial Latin America <p>In examining the cuisine of convents in colonial Latin America, one also investigates the complicated racial hierarchy and rules the colonial authorities imposed, and the ways that lived experience often differed from these guidelines. From the debate over the use of tortillas in the Eucharist to the attempted regulation of chocolate during fast days, the diet of nuns clearly had larger significance than mere sustenance. Examining the conventual kitchen and the women who worked and ate there offers insight into the ways that colonialism and enslavement impacted Latin America during this era, illustrating the way that our basic needs are often charged with much more significance than we realize.</p> Pascale Halliday ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 35 43 Gender Troubled: European Masculinity and Kaúxuma núpika on the Columbia Plateau <p>Kaúxuma núpika was a Ktunaxa guide, prophet and mediator from the Columbia Plateau in the early 19th century that appears in multiple Euro-American fur trader journals and narratives. He left his community as a young woman, and returned a year later as a man, who gained significant political and spiritual influence across the Plateau. Fur traders that hired Kaúxuma núpika as a translator, mediator and guide interpreted him as a man, and often only discovered that he was born a woman long after they had parted ways. Kaúxuma núpika, knowingly or not, was performing a masculinity entirely legible to these traders—and within their narratives they are constantly trying to remind both themselves, and the reader, that this man is not actually a man.</p> Mira Harvey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 44 53 More than a Fur Trading Post: Agricultural Development at Fort Victoria, 1846 <p>Just three years after the establishment of Fort Victoria accounts made by Chief Factor Roderick Finlayson in the Fort Victoria Journal show that fur trading was infrequent at best. The first year of journal entries, which provides the closest look at what life at the fort consisted of in its formative years, shows that only 18 days included mention of a significant trade occurring; however, in that same year employees at the fort produced thousands of bushels of vegetables. The forts role as an agricultural hub was discounted by the colony’s first Governor, Richard Blanshard, who commented in 1851 that the fort was nothing more than a fur trading post - a comment that has had an undue influence on historical writing about Fort Victoria. After considering why the fort was designated as a main depot and examining how the Lekwungen People’s land management practices incentivized the HBC to appropriate and reorganize land for company farming, this essay challenges Blanshard’s comment, suggesting that Fort Victoria was much more than a fur trading post.</p> Collin Rennie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 54 62 Reasons for Rebellion: Nationalism’s Role in the Greek War of Independence <p>Because the Greek War of Independence led to the creation of a Greek nation-state, it is important to examine the role nationalism played in the Greek rebellion. During the Greek War of Independence, national rhetoric was used to create international support for the Greek cause; however, the portrayal of a united Greek nation was not fully formed in reality. Furthermore, the intervention of major European powers in the Greek War of Independence appears to have been based more on geo-strategic factors rather than fostering ideas of the “Greek-nation.” Through an analysis of the religious, economic, educational, and international factors that led to the Greek rebellion, this essay argues that national sentiment was not the primary motive behind the Greek War of Independence.</p> Molly Rothwell ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 63 74 Victim or Vixen? Ambiguity and The Portrayal of Prostitution and The “New Woman” in The Films of G.W. Pabst <p>This paper examines the ambiguous portrayal of prostitution in Weimar Germany through the films of German film director G.W. Pabst. The women prostitute characters in Joyless Streets (1925), Diary of a Lost Girl (1929), and Pandora’s Box (1929) reveal the extent to which class lines began to blur for prostitutes during the economic crisis in the Weimar Republic. Pabst’s films explore the different circumstances that steered women into prostitution, and how the prostitutes’ behaviours affects whether they are intended to be perceived by the audience as “victims” of financial desperation or sexually manipulative “vixens.” The paper further investigates the existence of an unofficial criteria in Pabst’s films that decides whether a prostitute character will have a fortunate or tragic end, and whether this criterion exists to appease the concern of censor boards that the existence of prostitutes as protagonists in film made the profession appear desirable.</p> Marley Sterner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 1 75 83