A Review of Blackfoot, Petri, and Esca; Grapevine Fungal Diseases, their Treatments and the Impacts of Copper Based Fungicides
Grapevines are a vital crop for the Canadian economy. Vineyards are a growth industry that bring tourists to Canada, and has the added benefit of being a profitable business that has significantly grown in popularity in British Columbia over the last 20 years. There are large gaps in knowledge on specific fungal diseases, and how to treat them. There are also issues with the knowledge from scientific studies not being effectively passed on to the people who can use it. This review seeks to gain insight from local vineyard managers to better understand both what their challenges with vineyard management are, and to look into the research behind fungal pathogens and pass that on to the vineyard managers who have helped with this review by filling out the survey. The fungal pathogens focused on in this review are actually fungal diseases that are made up of groups of harmful fungi those diseases are: Blackfoot, Petri, and Esca. The next step was looking into treatments for these diseases, with the specific intent to look into copper based fungicides. Lastly the impacts of copper based fungicides were looked into, to better understand their impact on the ecosystem and surrounding environment.