International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies 2021-02-04T09:45:18-08:00 Sibylle Artz, PhD Open Journal Systems <p><span style="color: #000000;">The <em>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</em> (IJCYFS) is a peer reviewed </span><span style="color: #000000;">open access, interdisciplinary, cross-national journal that is committed to scholarly excellence in the field of research about and services for children, youth, families and their communities.</span></p> “STUDENTS FOR CHILDREN”: A VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME-MODEL FOR UNIVERSITIES FOR THE SUPPORT OF CHILDREN IN FOSTER CARE 2021-01-08T00:38:01-08:00 Gabriella Kulcsár Judit Zeller Beáta Korinek <p>Foster care institutions are badly understaffed and operate on the lowest expected standards in terms of human resources in Hungary. In many cases, child protection personnel working with children in foster care do not have the necessary qualifications, and even those that do are often so overloaded with tasks that they cannot routinely engage in meaningful social interactions with the children. This paper introduces a unique and easily adaptable model of volunteer ,,work in university settings that aims to improve the situation of children in foster care. The Students for Children Volunteer Programme was founded in 2010 in the Faculty of Law at the University of Pécs, Hungary, and is now part of the curriculum there both as an elective course and as a cross-faculty programme. From the outset, the primary goal of this initiative has been to improve the situation of children in foster care through student mentoring by empowering them to manage everyday challenges and develop meaningful perspectives on their futures. Other equally important objectives are to enhance students’ social sensitivity and skills and to shape their thinking through this challenging work. Since its inception, the programme has been operating with unbroken success and, over the years, nearly 400 volunteers have completed the programme. The long-term plan is that through this model a country-wide network of similar volunteer programmes can be developed to improve the situation of children in need. Although aspects of the Students for Children programme still need to be refined, our experience with it shows that it has invaluable social, educational, and psychological effects on both the children and the future law professionals.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CYBERAGGRESSION: THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL MONITORING ON BYSTANDER ROLES 2021-01-08T00:38:01-08:00 Michal Levy Revital Sela-Shayovitz <p>The digital world has created new opportunities for aggression through cyberaggression. Despite growing research interest in cyberaggression, little is known about the various bystander roles in the digital interaction. This paper examines the effect of parental monitoring practices (parental restriction, youth disclosure, and parental solicitation) on five bystander roles: aggressor-supporter, defender, help-seeker, outsider, and passive bystander. Data were derived from self-report questionnaires answered by a sample of 501 adolescents in Israel. The findings indicate that adolescents who share their experiences of cyberaggression with their parents are more likely than others to defend the cybervictim. Interaction effects were found between adolescent gender, installing warning applications, parent gender, and the aggressor-supporter role. Boys whose parents installed warning applications and whose fathers monitored their online activities were positively associated with the aggressor-supporter role, while girls who were higher aggressor-supporter reported that their parents used warning applications but did not monitor their online activities. The discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of the effectiveness of parental monitoring on the cyberaggression bystander’s role.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ELEMENTS IN SCHOOL PRINCIPALSHIP: THE CHANGING ROLE OF PEDAGOGY AND THE GROWING RECOGNITION OF EMOTIONAL LITERACY 2021-01-08T00:38:00-08:00 Alexander Schneider Einat Yitzhak-Monsonego <p>This paper examines the changing role of pedagogy and the growing recognition of emotional literacy as an element in school principalship, as perceived by school principals. A model of the “principal’s toolkit” based on three “pillars” of leadership, management, and pedagogy was used, but with the addition of a fourth pillar, emotional literacy. Here we report on a survey of 63 principals and educational executives that was designed to examine principals’ views regarding which tools are required for school principalship, the way they prioritize those tools, and the weight accorded to each. The survey, which took place from September 2009 to July 2010, was conducted through a questionnaire and interviews. Quantitative processing of the questionnaire results was performed, as was content analysis of the open questions and the interviews. The findings clearly define and rate the components of the essential toolkit for principalship as perceived by the principals. Leadership and emotional literacy were rated highest and pedagogy and management lower, which is at odds with the prevailing attempt by the Israeli Ministry of Education to establish pedagogical leadership as the central element in principalship. This paper will explore and explain the phenomenon of change in principalship elements that entails the changing role of pedagogy and the increasing importance of emotional literacy as an element in school principalship.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## POLICE STUDIES PROGRAM FOR YOUTH AT RISK: THE ROLE OF POLICE DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE AND PERSONAL MORALITY IN EXPLAINING POLICE LEGITIMACY 2020-12-30T18:54:02-08:00 Ameen Azmy <p>This study examined a unique police studies intervention program by comparing two groups of youth-at-risk in two types of residential youth schools. The experimental group included 129 youths who had attended a police studies program, while the control group included 167 youths who had attended a different intervention program, without police studies. We hypothesized that the experimental group would have more positive perceptions of police legitimacy and distributive justice and higher levels of personal morality than the control group would. Moreover, we hypothesized that the relationship between the type of the intervention program and perceptions of police legitimacy would be explained by youths’ personal morality and perceptions of police distributive justice. The study showed that the experimental group had more positive perceptions of police legitimacy and higher personal morality than did the control group, but there were no differences in perceived police distributive justice between the two groups. In addition, while personal morality partly mediated the link between the type of intervention program and perceptions of police legitimacy, perceived police distributive justice did not. Empirical and theoretical implications are discussed.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RESIDENTIAL CARE IN GERMANY FOR REFUGEE YOUNG PEOPLE 2021-01-08T00:38:00-08:00 Norbert Struck <p>This article analyzes developments in the forms of social work with young refugees and the legal framing of such work in Germany from 1990 to the present. In particular, it addresses the reactions of politicians and the child and youth welfare system to the sharp rise in the number of refugees in 2015 and 2016, and the concomitant significant increase in the number of unaccompanied minor refugees. It underlines the need for an approach based on children’s rights, and the necessity for social workers, especially those involved in helping youth, to resist the policies of deterrence that are aimed at keeping refugees out of Germany.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IDENTIFYING BEST-PRACTICE STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING RESIDENTIAL CAREGIVERS WORKING WITH CHILDREN AT RISK 2021-01-08T00:37:59-08:00 Anna Reznikovsky-Kuras Anna Gerasimenko <p>Residential caregivers are the central figures responsible for the children in their charge. Their work is physically and emotionally taxing, and carried out under pressure: they are prone to burnout. In addition, their status is lower than that of other staff. This study aimed to identify the strategies to improve caregiver functioning that have been adopted in Israel’s residential social-service facilities, and to examine the extent of their implementation. A two-stage, mixed-methods study design was employed. In the qualitative stage, six successful care facilities were identified; their directors were interviewed in depth using the Learning from Success method. In the quantitative stage, a survey was administered to 95 directors, using open and closed questions. Six best-practice strategies for working with caregivers were identified: careful screening, training, ongoing supervision, personal and professional support mechanisms, flexible schedules, and a clear work plan and procedures. While these strategies were applied to some extent in most facilities, they varied in scope and implementation. Using a regression model, we found a connection between the implementation of these strategies and the directors’ satisfaction with the caregivers’ work. We discuss recommendations that can help directors incorporate the six strategies in residential homes and meet the challenges directors face in their work with caregivers.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SYSTEMIC REFLEXIVITY IN RESIDENTIAL CHILD CARE: A PEDAGOGICAL FRAME TO EMPOWER PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE 2021-01-08T00:39:31-08:00 Laura Formenti Allessandra Rigamonti <p>This position paper offers a pedagogical frame to empower professional work in residential child care. Jobs in this demanding field are characterized by daily relationships with children of different ages, needs, and cultural backgrounds. There is a need for effective communication and interaction with them, their families, co-workers, other professionals, and care agencies, as well as with the larger community. This complexity brings uncertainty and the necessity of thinking and acting in a sensitive way in order to open possibilities for systemic transformation at the micro, meso, and macro levels. In this framework, we focus on reflexivity as a meta-competence — a set of specific postures, competences, and attitudes that characterize expert professional action. A thorough literature review on reflexivity in social work and child protection is aimed at clarifying the meanings, uses, and features of this concept. We claim that systemic reflexivity can be used as a framework, a methodology, and a set of tools to empower professional work by enhancing emotional, cognitive, and epistemic self-awareness, systemic wisdom, abduction, and active listening. To help workers and teams develop these five competences, a self-directed learning module is currently being designed, based on systemic and narrative perspectives, and transformative learning theory.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CARE LEAVERS’ PERSPECTIVES ON THE FAMILY IN THE TRANSITION FROM OUT-OF-HOME CARE TO INDEPENDENT LIVING 2021-01-08T00:39:30-08:00 Stephan Sting Maria Groinig <p>Findings from youth research have shown that, due to the development of the transitional phase of “emerging adulthood”, the family has become increasingly significant for young adults as a source of support and as a safety net. In contrast, care leavers are confronted with a relatively abrupt transition to independent living. However, international studies have shown that the family also plays a significant role during the status passage of leaving care — as an arena of concrete social relationships, as a normative model and ideal, as a biographical experience and memory, as a connection to family traditions and practices, and as an important contextual factor for resilience and identity formation. The first section of this paper describes the various links between care leavers and their families based on a literature review. In the second section, the biographical relevance of the family is highlighted based on the example of a qualitative interview study about the educational pathways of 20- to 27-year-old care leavers. The study shows the various influences of family links on the educational careers of young people during and after out-of-home care. From the findings, we derive some consequences for professional work with families in out-of-home care and for professional support and guidance during the status passage of leaving care.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SUPPORT FOR YOUTH LEAVING CARE: A NATIONAL RESEARCH STUDY, INDIA 2021-02-04T09:45:18-08:00 Kiran Modi Lakshmi Madhavan Leena Prasad Gurneet Kalra Suman Kasana Sanya Kapoor <p>This paper is a condensed version of a study entitled “Beyond 18: Leaving Child Care Institutions — A Study of Aftercare Practices in Five States of India”, conducted and published in 2019 by Udayan Care, a charitable organisation, with support from UNICEF India and Tata Trusts. This research involved the participation of care leavers, government functionaries, duty-bearers, and civil society practitioners. It found that upon turning 18, youth transitioning out of child care institutions to independent life in India experience many challenges, such as securing housing and identity documents; accessing education, skill development, and employment opportunities; and garnering psychosocial support. This study also showed that absent or inadequate aftercare support during transition increases care leavers’ vulnerabilities to homelessness, unemployment, substance misuse, and ruptured social relationships. It also found that continued aftercare support is necessary to foster independent living skills in these young people and enable their reintegration into mainstream society. While exploring the continuum from child care to aftercare, the researchers developed the concept of a “Sphere of Aftercare”, comprising eight domains of support that are considered essential for a successful transition. The study revealed a lack of transition planning at the level of child care institutions and functionaries and a general lack of understanding of the holistic aftercare needs of youth throughout the eight identified domains. The study also found an absence of clarity about stakeholders’ roles; a lack of data management with regard to the number of youth leaving care, leading to inadequate budget planning; and a lack of adequate monitoring mechanisms to assess care leavers’ outcomes. In light of this study’s findings, policy reforms and ways of developing robust aftercare programmes are recommended in relation to policy, practice, and law.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##