International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies <p><span style="color: #000000;">The <em>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</em> (IJCYFS) is a peer reviewed </span><span style="color: #000000;">open access, interdisciplinary, cross-national journal that is committed to scholarly excellence in the field of research about and services for children, youth, families and their communities</span></p> School of Child and Youth Care, University of Victoria, B.C. Canada en-US International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies 1920-7298 <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors contributing to the <em>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</em> agree to&nbsp;release their articles under the </span><span style="line-height: 140%;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: purple;">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Unported</span></a><span style="color: black;"> license. This licence&nbsp;allows&nbsp;anyone to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. </span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal right of&nbsp;first publication.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><strong><span style="line-height: 115%;">Rights Granted After Publication</span></strong></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">After publication, authors may reuse portions or the full article without obtaining formal permission for inclusion within their thesis or dissertation.&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Permission for these reuses is granted on the following conditions:</p> <ul> <li>that full acknowledgement is made of the original publication stating the specific material reused [pages, figure numbers, etc.], [Title] by/edited by [Author/editor], [year of publication], reproduced by permission of International Journal of Child, Youth &amp; Family Studies [link to IJCYFS website];</li> <li>In the case of joint-authored works, it is the responsibility of the author to obtain permission from co-authors for the work to be reuse/republished;</li> <li>that reuse on personal websites and institutional or subject-based repositories includes a link to the work as published in the International Journal of Child, Youth &amp; Family Studies; and that the material is not distributed under any kind of Open Access style licences (e.g. Creative Commons) which may affect the Licence between the author and IJCYFS.</li> </ul> EDITORIAL: THE TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD FROM CARE IN CANADA <p>This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of the status of transitions from care in Canada. Currently, few statistics are collected on youth in and from care and regional disparities contribute to a comparatively low level of services overall, as well as a fragmented approach to policies outlining the rights of &nbsp;those who have grown up in government care. The contributions in the issue exemplify the growing interest in care leaving research and theory building in Canada, as well as the significant advocacy provided by care-experienced youth leaders , all of which augur well for the future of care leaving across the country.</p> Varda R. Mann-Feder Copyright (c) 2023 Varda R. Mann-Feder 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 1 6 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321281 PROGRAMS AND SERVICES OFFERED TO YOUNG PEOPLE TRANSITIONING OUT OF CARE IN CANADA: A LITERATURE REVIEW <p>Little research has been carried out on young people transitioning out of care in Canada. The objective of this paper was to describe and comment on the services provided to youth leaving care systems in Canada, with a focus on the four provinces with the largest populations (Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, and Alberta). The Quebec government offers only one limited-access transition program, which has just been extended to age 25. Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta offer several transition programs, which include financial, education, and life skills components. In British Columbia, these offer support up to age 29. The 6 remaining provinces and the 3 territories offer support to a maximum age that ranges from 21 to 26. Most offer a general financial allowance, and some offer additional supports that can include a housing allowance, tuition waivers, and job training. British Columbia and Ontario offer the most supports, including medical assistance, tuition waivers, and mental health supports. Research is needed to find out which supports are most beneficial, and under which circumstances.</p> Paola A. Leal-Ferman Charlene Weight Eric Latimer Copyright (c) 2023 Paola A. Leal-Ferman, Charlene Weight, and Eric Latimer 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 7 29 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321282 NEUROSCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE AND CARE LEAVING: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY CRITICAL COMMENTARY <p class="CYFSAbstract" style="margin-bottom: 18.0pt;">While neuroscientific literature suggests that some parts of the brain are not fully developed until the mid-20s, public discourse is skewed toward early child development (ECD) because of its supposed long-term economic benefits. Some researchers have gone so far as to say that society overinvests in remedial programs for disadvantaged adolescents. Such claims resist advocacy efforts for extended care for children in out-of-home care and discourage policy and legislative concerns regarding investing in early adulthood. In this commentary, we unpack the literature on brain development and critically discuss its selective use by legislators and policymakers for investments in ECD. Despite the availability of neuroscientific and economic evidence, it is not prominent in the discourse surrounding supportive interventions like extending care. Using Bourdieu’s theory of social reproduction, we discuss how preference is given to only the type of knowledge that preserves the social structures that work to ensure the multigenerational flow of capital among dominant groups. Also, social institutions act within the dimensions set by the social structure, constantly shaping and reshaping ways of facilitating capital preservation among the upper classes. We conclude that, in addition to moral argument, the current neuroscientific evidence may support investment in extended care programs.</p> Amit Sundly Meghan Keating Andem Effiong Abdullah Omar Saif Copyright (c) 2023 Amit Sundly, Meghan Keating, Andem Effiong, and Abdullah Omar Saif 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 30 46 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321283 EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ASPIRATIONS AND EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES AMONG QUEBEC YOUTH IN RESIDENTIAL CARE WHO ARE AT THE EDGE OF TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD <p>This article explores the development of aspirations among young people in residential care who are on the cusp of adulthood, and the relationship between their aspirations and their educational experience. We examine the specific aspirations of young people, what shapes those aspirations, and how they interact with their educational experience. This article is based on a qualitative study that aimed to better understand the educational experience of young people in residential care in the Canadian province of Quebec. Biographical interviews were conducted with 35 young people aged 14 to 18. Our analysis demonstrates that, while many seem quite able to project themselves into the future, some appear to see their placement situation and its accompanying uncertainty as an obstacle to doing so. It also suggests that educational and professional aspirations can transform young people’s educational experiences and the meaning that they attribute to formal education, as well as influence their intention to pursue further education. Finally, our results offer a critical look at how youth construct their aspirations, and demonstrate the importance of providing conditions that allow and encourage youth in residential care to develop and pursue varied aspirations.</p> Elodie Marion Annika Rozefort Laurence Tchuindibi Copyright (c) 2023 Elodie Marion, Annika Rozefort, and Laurence Tchuindibi 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 47 70 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321285 MISSING THE MARK: THE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL ANXIETY IN FINANCIAL SKILLS TRAINING FOR FOSTER YOUTH <p class="CYFSAbstract">It is well established that many former Canadian foster youth struggle with financial issues after aging out of care. Much of the financially focused intervention literature speaks to financial literacy training within independent living programming (ILP) or financial empowerment within individual development accounts (IDAs). These important programs offer educational modules to address financial skills or increase youth access to savings. Yet they are not sufficient, as neither addresses the emotional side of personal financial decision-making. Growing up in poverty can create emotional challenges related to money, such as financial anxiety. Financial anxiety affects quality of life in complex ways. Using three clinical composite profiles of youth aging out of the youth protection system in Quebec, this paper highlights some of the complex challenges faced by foster care alumni in dealing with economic insecurities. It is our proposition that we must be more mindful of current and former foster youth’s financial well-being and adapt financial literacy training accordingly. Further, these programs must be assessed for short- and long-term efficacy. Neglecting to measure and address financial anxiety for foster youth and alumni of care risks setting them up for preventable hardships and failures. This paper thus proposes that Canadian child welfare organizations and research teams must further develop this area of inquiry and intervention.</p> Amanda Keller Copyright (c) 2023 Amanda Keller 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 71 83 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321286 THE MANY FACES OF THE “FOSTER CARE YOUTH” LABEL: HOW YOUNG WOMEN MANAGE THE STIGMA OF OUT-OF-HOME PLACEMENT <p>A number of studies have found that adolescents in foster care expect and perceive stigma related to their “foster care youth” status. Yet, little is known about how this perceived stigma manifests, as well as how youth manage it. The current study therefore aimed to explore how young women with a history in foster care integrate these experiences into their life stories. The focus is on discursive manifestations of stigma in participants’ narratives about placement in foster care, their own perceptions of care-experienced girls and women, as well as how they self-present. Special attention is also given to the ways in which youth try to reduce, deflect, or eliminate stigma. The present study draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with a sample of 20 young women with a history in foster care. Our findings suggest that participants do anticipate and perceive public stigma in relation to their history in foster care. The results also highlight the various strategies used by participants to resist self-stigmatization. The main strategy used was to distance themselves from their “foster care youth” status, insisting that they should never have been placed in foster care and that they are not faring badly as adults, unlike typical care-experienced youth.</p> Mathilde Turcotte Nadine Lanctôt Copyright (c) 2023 Mathilde Turcotte and Nadine Lanctôt 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 84 109 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321287 YOUTH AS TRUTH-TELLERS AND RIGHTS-HOLDERS: LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS TO ENABLE YOUTH HOUSING SECURITY <p>In the first pan-Canadian study on youth homelessness, 57.8% of youth reported prior involvement with child protection services. Indeed, transitions from government institutions (e.g., child/youth protection, inpatient mental health treatment, the youth justice system) represent common pathways into homelessness for youth across North America. This article examines young people’s experiences navigating youth protection services to identify institutional, legislative, and policy processes that pose problems for youth experiencing or at risk of homelessness, as well as processes that show promise for the promotion of the interests, protection, and well-being of youth. Our participatory youth research team explored homeless youth’s histories of involvement with youth protection services, seeking to clarify the sociolegal mechanisms in and beyond the youth protection system that make young people vulnerable to homelessness. Youth and adult co-researchers interviewed 38 individual youth (aged 16–29) who completed 64 qualitative institutional history interviews. According to our analysis, young people identified the following sociolegal practices as implicated in their experiences of homelessness: the use of totalizing institutions, the criminalization of runaways, the abrupt cessation of service delivery at 18 years of age, a systemic failure to view youth as rights-holders, and an overly complex emancipation process.</p> Naomi Nichols Jayne Malenfant Youth Action Research Revolution Copyright (c) 2023 Naomi Nichols, Jayne Malenfant, and Youth Action Research Revolution 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 110 130 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321288 REPORT FROM THE FIELD <p class="CYFSAbstract">This report describes a national lived experience advocacy movement generated by the work of the National Council of Youth in Care Advocates to support equitable transitions to adulthood for youth in care in Canada. The emergence of the National Council at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic is presented, as well as the ongoing progress and achievements in advocacy and best practice efforts at the national and local jurisdiction levels. This article, by three members of the National Council, is the first to provide an account of the process associated with national lived experience advocacy mobilization by and for youth in care.</p> Melanie Doucet Ashley Bach Marie Christian Copyright (c) 2023 Melanie Doucet, Ashley Bach, and Marie Christian 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 14 1 131 146 10.18357/ijcyfs141202321289