International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies <p><span style="color: #000000;">The <em>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</em> (IJCYFS) is a peer reviewed </span><span style="color: #000000;">open access, interdisciplinary, cross-national journal that is committed to scholarly excellence in the field of research about and services for children, youth, families and their communities</span></p> School of Child and Youth Care, University of Victoria, B.C. Canada en-US International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies 1920-7298 <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors contributing to the <em>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</em> agree to&nbsp;release their articles under the </span><span style="line-height: 140%;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: purple;">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Unported</span></a><span style="color: black;"> license. This licence&nbsp;allows&nbsp;anyone to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. </span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal right of&nbsp;first publication.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><strong><span style="line-height: 115%;">Rights Granted After Publication</span></strong></p> <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">After publication, authors may reuse portions or the full article without obtaining formal permission for inclusion within their thesis or dissertation.&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Permission for these reuses is granted on the following conditions:</p> <ul> <li>that full acknowledgement is made of the original publication stating the specific material reused [pages, figure numbers, etc.], [Title] by/edited by [Author/editor], [year of publication], reproduced by permission of International Journal of Child, Youth &amp; Family Studies [link to IJCYFS website];</li> <li>In the case of joint-authored works, it is the responsibility of the author to obtain permission from co-authors for the work to be reuse/republished;</li> <li>that reuse on personal websites and institutional or subject-based repositories includes a link to the work as published in the International Journal of Child, Youth &amp; Family Studies; and that the material is not distributed under any kind of Open Access style licences (e.g. Creative Commons) which may affect the Licence between the author and IJCYFS.</li> </ul> TOWARDS A LOCALIZED UNDERSTANDING OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN AFRICA <p>Despite global and African continental efforts to curb violence against children (VAC), it is the fourth leading cause of death for young people aged 15 to 19 in Africa, according to a 2021 UNICEF report. In introducing this special issue on VAC in Africa, I contend that violence prevention and response efforts ought to be situated in local understandings of how violence is inflicted and experienced. Sociocultural and political ideals and values present in Africa nurture an atmosphere in which adults exercise power over children’s lives and can inflict harm upon them if they choose. Age-based power (adultism) facilitates VAC. Therefore, this special issue is underpinned by childism as a framework for challenging adultism in an effort to achieve a contextualized understanding of VAC in Africa, and how best to respond to and ultimately prevent it.</p> Doris Kakuru Copyright (c) 2022 Doris Kakuru 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 2-3 1 9 THE INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSIONS OF OPPRESSION: EXAMINING THE GENDER-RELATED IDEOLOGICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS AT THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL LEVEL <p>The problem of violence against girls in Nigeria has attracted scholarly attention from a number of empirical and theoretical vantage points. This scholarship is vitally important. It has helped thrust feminist and other anthropological discourse into an arena of anti-violence work with significant impacts on, and repercussions for, girls in Nigeria. However, despite systemic change over the past years, the problem of violence against girls in Nigeria — as in Africa generally — persists. A consensus has emerged in the literature that cultural and social norms are relevant to the persistence of violence against girls in Nigeria. Without understating that relevance, this article analyses the problem from a different perspective. Cultural, religious, ethnic, and social norms have figured increasingly in the conceptual frameworks of both international and national institutions, distracting attention from the ways in which ideologies confronting girls are actually embedded within organisational structures of control. Important as it may be to understand the ways that these norms have given rise to violence against girls, it is also vital to investigate the techniques through which violent practices are maintained despite the changing nature of Nigerian society. Using a critical legal studies approach, I argue that any solution to violence against girls must focus as much on institutional change as it does on social transformation. Exploring violence against girls from this perspective opens up an “institutional complex”, revealing a legal and political system that serves as a tool used by the government and the political elite for consolidating power and legitimising discriminatory principles as traditional values.</p> Julie Ada Tchoukou Copyright (c) 2022 SettingsJulie Ada Tchoukou 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 2-3 10 31 10.18357/ijcyfs132-3202221030 SCALING UP POSITIVE PARENTING PRACTICES IN UGANDA: RESEARCH EVIDENCE FROM AN INTEGRATED COMMUNITY-LED INITIATIVE FOR REDUCING VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN LIRA DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA <p>Community-based action research is increasingly gaining traction in development work, partly because of its benefits in contextualizing societal problems and “handing over the stick” to the communities; that is, researchers listen, question, and learn as the experts (the community members) identify their problems and define the change they desire. This research approach, therefore, empowers communities and is a shift from traditional research where the researcher presupposes that deductions about a phenomenon are to be made outside the natural environment. This research paper documents the use of participatory learning and action approaches in designing, implementing, and monitoring interventions to prevent violence against children in post-conflict northern Uganda, a region that suffered through the Lord’s Resistance insurgency from 1987 to 2006.</p> Mathew Amollo John Bosco Apota Clare Ahadwe Bangirana Tom Musika Timothy Opobo Copyright (c) 2022 Mathew Amollo, John Bosco Apota, Clare Ahabwe Bangirana, Tom Musika, Timothy Opobo 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 2-3 32 51 10.18357/ijcyfs132-3202221031 THE ROLE OF CITIES IN ENDING VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN SOUTH AFRICA <p>The global development agenda acknowledges the role of cities in achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and addressing contemporary challenges caused by urbanization. SDG 11 aspires to make “cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” by 2030, even as the global urban population continues to grow exponentially, along with — even more rapidly — the population of children living in cities. Cities are the level of government closest to people’s daily lives, and are best placed to address the numerous challenges and rights violations that children are exposed to, including sexual exploitation and abuse, violence, trafficking, and child labour. SDG 16.2 has the primary aim of ending the “abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against children”. Through the lens of the subsidiarity principle, this article argues that localization to the city level of law and policy strategies that address violence against children can provide normative and powerful legal tools for their protection. Although there is developing scholarly literature on the global aspirations expressed in SDG 11 and SDG 16.2, little has been offered from a child rights perspective on the role of city governments in the prevention of, and protection of children from, violence.</p> Rongedzayi Fambasayi Rejoice Shamiso Katsidzira Copyright (c) 2022 Rongedzayi Fambasayi, Rejoice Shamiso Katsidzira 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 2-3 52 71 10.18357/ijcyfs132-3202221032 JUST TECHNOPANIC OR A REAL RISK? PUBLISHING CHILDREN’S PICTURES ONLINE: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE <p>The internet has become an essential resource for social interaction among children, but it brings with it both advantages and disadvantages that depend in part on how it is used. This study, which is anchored in social learning theory, employed a desktop review of existing literature that focused on Kenya but covered global and other regional levels as well. The study found a number of benefits of the internet for children: updating family and friends on new developments in the children’s lives, reviewing photos and other records of past events, engaging in online interactions, and increasing their capacity for learning. Nonetheless, there are also internet-specific risks, such as access to inappropriate content and unsafe interactions with other children or adults. Other risks include “digital kidnapping” and contact with perpetrators who encourage children to engage in sexual activity. Although some countries have policies on internet usage, few have specific policies or guidelines addressing children’s vulnerability when sharing their pictures online. Moreover, most such policies are not applied in practice, especially in African countries. The study recommends developing and implementing policy frameworks to protect children online and using privacy settings to protect their information.</p> Sylvia Tuikong Copyright (c) 2022 Sylvia Tuikong 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 2-3 72 87 10.18357/ijcyfs132-3202221034