International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies <p><span style="color: #000000;">The <em>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</em> (IJCYFS) is a </span><span style="font-size: 8.5pt; line-height: 115%;">peer reviewed,</span><span style="color: #000000;">open access, interdisciplinary, cross-national journal that is committed to scholarly excellence in the field of research about and services for children, youth, families and their communities.</span></p> en-US <p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors contributing to the <em><span>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</span></em> agree to release their articles under the </span><span style="line-height: 140%;"><a href="" target="_blank"><span style="color: purple;">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Unported</span></a><span style="color: black;"> license. This licence allows anyone to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. </span></span></p><p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal right of first publication.</span></p><p style="line-height: 140%; background: white;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</span></p> (Sibylle Artz, PhD) (Caroline Green) Mon, 08 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0700 OJS 60 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL ISSUE: UNDERSTANDING AND RESPONDING TO PAIN-BASED BEHAVIOUR IN CHILD AND YOUTH CARE WORK <p class="CYFSBody">We are grateful to Dr. Sibylle Artz, Editor of the <em>International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies</em>, for the invitation to produce a special issue on pain-based behaviour in child and youth care work. Since the term was created and published in 2002 (Anglin, 2002), the notion has entered the literature, the research, and, perhaps most importantly, the practice of child and youth care internationally. The eight articles in this issue come from Ireland, Australia, the United States, and Canada, and offer a broad range of perspectives.</p><p class="CYFSBody">After receiving the invitation to compile this issue, we scanned the recent child and youth care literature and readily identified 13 publications — articles and books — using the term <em>pain-based behaviour</em>. There are undoubtedly many more, however we believed the authors of these publications would present a significant cross-section of perspectives on understanding and responding to pain and pain-based behaviour. We are excited and honoured that the authors represented here were able to contribute articles to this issue.</p> James P. Anglin, Lilia M. Zaharieva ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:13 -0700 PATHWAYS FROM PAIN TO RESILIENCE Abraham Maslow was among the first to hypothesize that most emotional and behavioral problems stem from unmet needs. Now, a large body of research on brain science, trauma, and resilience validates this concept. Humans experience emotional pain when their needs are frustrated. The most basic biosocial needs are for attachment, achievement, autonomy, and altruism. When these needs are met, children thrive. When they are not met, children experience pain-based emotions, thinking, and behavior. This article explores research and practical strategies for responding to the needs beneath pain-based behavior instead of reacting to problems. Larry K. Brendtro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:15 -0700 UNDERSTANDING AND RESPONDING TO PAIN AND PAIN-BASED BEHAVIOUR WITH YOUTH IN AND FROM CARE: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE INSIDE-OUT AND OUTSIDE-IN This article presents the findings from a dialogical research project involving a young adult student with lived experiences in care (inside-out perspective) and a seasoned child and youth care professional (outside-in perspective), exploring the pain of complex trauma and formulating healing responses to pain-based behaviour. The co-authors identify elements and dynamics related to the healing journey and present their findings largely in conversational format congruent with the process of discovery. Notions of family privilege, shattered assumptions, double distortion, pain and pain-based behaviour, the language of pain, evolution of self, moments of choice, following the yellow brick road, eight stages of healing, and self-compassion are discussed with an emphasis on understanding and responding supportively to the lived experiences of young people in and from care. Lilia M. Zaharieva, James P. Anglin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:16 -0700 MANAGING PAIN IN RESIDENTIAL CARE: A DEVELOPMENTAL ANALYSIS This article explores the presence of pain in residential programs for children and youth. The challenges associated with acknowledging and interpreting the behavioural manifestations of this pain — for the young people and for front-line practitioners — are discussed and interpreted through a constructive-developmental lens. The notion of the organization as a holding environment is reviewed, with a key focus on the role of the supervisor in absorbing the pain, providing emotional containment, supporting practitioners “where they are”, encouraging reflection, promoting developmental growth, and maintaining a stable presence. Implications for the organization are reviewed. Heather Modlin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:17 -0700 AN EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRAM MODEL FOR FACILITATING THERAPEUTIC RESPONSES TO PAIN-BASED BEHAVIOR IN RESIDENTIAL CARE Children and young people in residential care have often lived lives saturated with loss, neglect, rejection, and traumatic experiences. Children express the pain of trauma in various ways, namely pain-based behaviors manifesting in ways that often leave their care givers confused, frustrated, frightened, angry or exhausted. For residential caregivers to respond to children and young people in a consistent and therapeutic manner, residential environments must provide an ethos of respect, caring, and trust, creating a safe place for children and staff to live and learn together. This paper describes the Children and Residential Experiences (CARE) model, its implementation, and evidence for its effectiveness. CARE is a trauma-informed, principle-based, multi-component program designed to enhance the social dynamics in group care settings and help agencies create a living environment that provides developmentally enriching experiences for children in their care. By incorporating the CARE principles throughout all levels of the organization and into daily practice, the CARE program model has been shown to improve the capacity of staff to establish positive developmental relationships with the children in their care, offer developmentally enriching experiences and a “sense of normality”, and create cohesion and congruence throughout the organization. Through consistent and predictable compassionate and responsive interactions with adults, as well as opportunities to overcome challenges and to experience successful learning opportunities, children can grow, develop and thrive. Martha J. Holden, Deborah Sellers ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:18 -0700 FEEL THE PAIN AND DO IT ANYWAY This article<strong><em> </em></strong>is a reflective account of the<strong> </strong>process of a social care worker’s professional development over a span of 28-years, primarily working within children’s residential care settings. It charts the author’s journey with regard to his ability to cope with anxiety (pain-based fear) and to live “on the edge” in his professional practice. The author’s personal experience as a young boy of the death of his father is identified as having caused pain-based behaviours for the author until such time as he faced the pain of this loss. The traumatic experience then became an asset in his direct work with children and young people in the role of a “wounded healer”. The article introduces the concept of “vicarious confidence” and its critical role in leadership and supervision. Self-care is discussed and the concept of “system-trauma” is identified. The article also discusses the role of magic in social care and links this to neuroscience and brain MRI images. The article highlights the positive role pain can play in enabling workers to connect empathically with hurt children and young people and posits that if we are to care authentically then we must be prepared to experience pain. Maurice Fenton ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:21 -0700 ADDRESSING PAIN AND PAIN-BASED BEHAVIOURS FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN CHILD PROTECTION AND OUT-OF-HOME CARE In this paper we discuss the concepts of physical and emotional pain and people’s reactions such as pain-based behaviours. We describe our work with children and young people in the Victorian (Australia) child protection and out-of-home care system who have experienced many painful experiences often resulting in pain-based behaviours. We describe our practice approach with a description of the “PAIN Relief” emotional first aid tool. We highlight implications for practice, and training in response to emotional pain and pain-based behaviours. Annette Jackson, Raeleen J. McKenzie, Margarita Frederico ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:22 -0700 PAIN AND THE UNSPOKEN EMOTION: SHAME Anger, fear, and sadness are frequently described emotions that are experienced by many young people in care, but there is another common emotion that is less often named and understood. Shame — the deep sense of not belonging, of being defective or deficient in some way, of feeling unlovable — is a painful and pervasive social emotion that also involves our thinking processes and sense of self-worth. It has been described as a “pit of despair” that “envelops” many young people in care, a toxic force that drives behaviours we struggle to understand including some aggression and self-harm. Referencing Nathanson’s  Compass of Shame, this article looks at some common coping strategies as well as masks or proxies of shame including the so-called “impostor” phenomenon – even the “drive for normality” described by James Anglin in 2002 could be seen as an attempt to escape from shame’s isolating clutches. Strategies for helping young people understand and cope with shame, including the fostering of healthy connections and the judicious use of words, are then explored. Howard Bath ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:23 -0700 RESEARCHING PAIN — RE-SEARCHING THE RESEARCHER: PULLING BACK THE CURTAIN ON THE INNER LIFE AND ANXIETY OF THE INVESTIGATOR Seldom do researchers comment on or discuss in their publications the impact of their research on themselves, nor do they explore the impact of their emotions on their research data gathering or findings. The authors provide excerpts from two of their own research studies to illustrate some of the personal dimensions which they, along with George Devereux, claim are central and significant in the process of social science research. We suggest that is it is important to introduce new researchers to the psychoemotional dimensions of the researcher’s own experiences in the research process in order to both sensitize them to potential research findings (often hidden), and prepare them for the possible (even likely) impacts on themselves as researchers, professionals, and human beings. James P. Anglin, Angela Scott ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 12:57:24 -0700