Socioeconomic and Psychosocial Adversity in Inuit Mothers from Nunavik during the First Postpartum Year / ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᓪᓗ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᑎᒍᓪᓗ ᐅᓇᒻᒥᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᓇᕕᒻᒥᑦ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᓈᓇᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᑉ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅᐹᖓᓂᑦ ᐃᕐᓂᓯᒪᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ
The postpartum year is a crucial period for child development and mother-child attachment. In a young and prolific population such as the Inuit from Nunavik (northern Quebec, Canada), postpartum maternal well-being is even more concerning. This study aims to document the prevalence and co-occurrence of socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors in this population, and to use these factors to identify specific profiles of women. Data collection involved 176 mothers recruited during pregnancy and interviewed 12 months after delivery. Socioeconomic (age, education, single parenting, unemployment, welfare) and psychosocial (psychological distress, suicidal thoughts and attempts, spousal abuse, drug and alcohol use) risk factors were documented. Four high-risk conditions (socioeconomic precariousness, distress, domestic abuse, and substance use) were computed and considered in the analysis. Adversity was salient because most of the women (58%) simultaneously experience many high-risk conditions, with socioeconomic difficulties, distress, and spousal abuse being the most prevalent. Distinct profiles were identified: those without socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors (30.8%) and those experiencing distress (69.2%). From the latter category, two specific profiles of distressed mothers emerged: single women coping with socioeconomic stressors (40.1%), and women with fewer financial difficulties but in an abusive relationship and more likely to use drugs or binge drink (29.1%). Our results support the need for preventive and public health programs in this population to improve maternal as well as infant wellbeing.
ᐊᕐᕌᒍ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅᐹᖅ ᐃᕐᓂᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᓂ ᐱᓪᓗᕆᓐᓂᖅᐸᐅᕗᖅ ᐊᓈᓇᐅᔪᖅ ᕿᑐᕐᖓᖓᓗ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᐅᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ. ᓄᓇᕕᒻᒥᐅᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓅᓱᑦᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᔭᐃᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᑭᒃᑰᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓱᒫᓗᓇᖅᐳᖅ ᐊᓈᓇᐅᔪᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᖏᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᕐᓂᕋᑖᖅᑐᒥᓂᐅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐅᓇ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᖅ ᑐᕌᒐᖃᖅᑯᖅ ᑎᑎᖅᑐᐃᔾᔪᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᕐᒧᓪᓗ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒃᑯᓪᓗ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᕈᑕᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐊᖅᑯᑎᒋᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᕐᓇᐃᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᑦᑑᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᓴᕐᓇᕈᑎᒋᓕᕐᓗᒋᑦ. ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᓂᒃ ᑲᑎᖅᓱᐃᓂᖅ ᐃᓚᓕᐅᔾᔨᔪᕗᖅ 176−ᓂᒃ ᐊᓈᓇᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᓚᓕᐅᑦᑐᒋᑦ ᓇᔾᔨᔪᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐱᖅᓱᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎ ᑕᖅᑮᑦ ᖁᓕᑦ ᒪᕐᕉᓪᓗ (12) ᐊᓂᒍᖅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᖅ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᒃᑯᑦ (ᐊᕐᕌᒍᒋᔭᖏᑦ, ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᖏᑦ, ᐃᓄᑑᔾᔨᓂᖅ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᖃᕐᓂᖅ, ᓱᒃᑯᐊᕿᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓱᒪᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᒃᑯᑦ (ᐃᓱᒫᓘᑕᐅᔪᑦ, ᐃᒻᒥᓃᕈᒪᓂᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᒻᒥᓃᕋᓱᓐᓂᖅ, ᓂᖓᕐᓂᖅ, ᐋᖓᔮᕐᓇᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᒥᐊᓗᒻᒥᒃ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᕐᓂᖅ) ᑕᐃᒪᐃᑦᑐᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᕈᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑐᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᕗᑦ. ᑎᓴᒪᑦ ᖁᑦᑎᓂᖅᐹᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᕈᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ (ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᑦᑐᐃᓗᖅᑯᑏᑦ, ᐃᓱᒫᓗᒍᑎᑦ, ᓂᖓᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᕐᓚᒍᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᕐᓗᒃ) ᕿᒥᕐᕈᔭᐅᔪᔪᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓱᒻᒥᕆᐊᕈᑕᐅᔪᔪᑦ ᕿᒥᕐᕈᓂᒃᑯᑎᒍᑦ. ᐊᑲᕐᕆᓐᖏᒍᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᓲᔪᕐᓇᑦᑎᐊᔪᕗᑦ ᐅᐱᓐᓇᕋᓂ ᐃᓄᒋᐊᓐᓂᖅᓴᐃᑦ ᐊᕐᓇᐃᑦ (58%) ᖁᑦᑎᓂᖅᐹᖑᔪᓂᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᕈᑎᓂᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᑲᐃᓪᓕᐅᕈᑎᖃᖅᑐᑎ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔾᔪᑎᒃᑯᑦ, ᐃᓱᒫᓘᑎᖃᐅᖅᑐᑎ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᖓᖅᑕᐅᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᓲᔪᕐᓇᓛᖑᔪᓪᓗᑎ. ᐊᔾᔨᒌᓐᖏᒍᑕᐅᔪᓪᓗ ᓲᔪᕐᓇᖅᓯᔪᕗᑦ: ᑕᐃᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓕᕆᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓱᒪᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᕈᑎᖃᓐᖏᑦᑐᑦ (30.8%) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᖁᒪᐃᓪᓕᐅᖅᑐᑦ (69.2%). ᑭᖑᓪᓕᐅᔪᒥᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᔾᔪᑎᒥᒃ, ᒪᕐᕈᐃᓕᖅᑲᖓᔫᒃ ᐃᓕᓴᕐᓇᖅᓯᔪᕘᒃ ᐊᓈᓇᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐅᖁᒪᐃᓪᓕᐅᕈᑕᐅᔪᑦ: ᐃᓄᑑᔾᔨᔪᑦ ᐊᕐᓇᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᓕᕆᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓱᒫᓘᑎᓖᑦ (40.1%) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᕐᓇᐃᑦ ᐃᓱᒫᓘᑎᖃᓐᖏᓂᔅᓴᐃᑦ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᑎᒍᑦ ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᓂᖓᖅᑕᐅᕙᑦᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐋᖓᔮᕐᓇᑐᖅᑐᐸᑦᑐᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓗᑭᐊᖅ ᐃᒥᕋᓚᑉᐸᑦᑐᑦ (29.1%). ᖃᐅᔨᔾᔪᑎᕗᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᕗᑦ ᑭᓐᖒᒪᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᖅᑲᐅᒥᔾᔪᑎᔅᓴᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᓐᓅᓕᖓᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᓗᓯᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᑎᑕᒐᕐᓂᒃ ᐱᕚᓪᓕᐊᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᓈᓇᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᑕᕋᖏᑕ ᐃᓅᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ.