On Politics 2023-07-24T09:48:40-07:00 Simone Rutherford and Anna Alva Open Journal Systems <p>On Politics is the journal of the University of Victoria Undergraduates of Political Science. It seeks to provide opportunities for undergraduate publishing, and to encourage undergraduate scholarship. The Journal publishes high-quality academic writing from a multitude of theoretical perspectives and sub-fields within the discipline of political science, as well as interdisciplinary perspectives. With these broad aims and inclusive features, On Politics presents an accommodating format to disseminate scholarship of a political nature from those who seldom gain the opportunity. On Politics publishes two issues per year.</p> Editorial Team 2023-07-24T09:48:29-07:00 Simone Rutherford Anna Alva 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Simone Rutherford and Anna Alva Acknowledgments 2023-07-24T09:48:31-07:00 Simone Rutherford Anna Alva 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Simone Rutherford and Anna Alva Letter From the Editors 2023-07-24T09:48:32-07:00 Simone Rutherford Anna Alva 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Simone Rutherford and Anna Alva The Glorified Rapist: How Militarized Masculinity Creates Militarized Sites That Foster Intra-Service Sexualized Violence Through an Examination of the U.S. Military 2023-07-24T09:48:33-07:00 Molly Taylor <p>The ratification of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 aimed to promote women's peace and security using a liberal feminist framework to advance gender equality in conflict settings. Its failure to redress underlying structural problems has raised justified criticism. This article probes to unpack the force of toxic hegemonic masculinity in conflict settings. The U.S. Army is highly regarded for safeguarding the nation-state. Yet, ironically, U.S. military institutions persist as sites of intra-service sexual violence which must not be understood as anything less than a national security concern. How militarized masculinities foster militarized sites and enable intra-service sexualized violence will be explored through a gendered lens using the U.S. military as a case study. Ultimately, this research finds that U.S. national heroes are being violated by uniformed rapists, who escape accountability shielded by militarism’s toxic use of hegemonic masculinity.</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Molly Taylor Fusionism, Dominionism and the Contemporary Resurgence of Catholic Integralism 2023-07-24T09:17:25-07:00 Alexander Nowitz <p>Over the last decade, Catholic commentators in the United States have debated the appropriate relationship between the Church and the liberal state. One hitherto dominant group, known as fusionists, have argued that the state ought to remain religiously neutral. An emerging group known as integralists, however, have claimed that this is impossible. Instead, they argue that the Catholic Faith should form the basis for law and public policy. Opponents of integralism have linked the movement to a supposed Protestant counterpart, dominionism. In reality, the two movements are very different, with dominionists attempting to realize the Kingdom of Heaven on earth, and integralists having more modest goals.</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Alexander Nowitz The Interests of Canadian Capital in Latin America: A Case Study of Honduras and Colombia 2023-07-24T09:21:48-07:00 Karen Strand <p>This paper explores the often-overlooked topic of Canadian imperialism, which has global and local repercussions but receives less scrutiny than its American counterpart. Research reveals that Canada has been engaging in imperialist practices for decades, with Latin America as a primary target. Through case studies of Honduras and Colombia, this paper uncovers the negative impact of Canadian resource extraction on these countries, with a focus on mining. By analyzing the Canadian imperialist project in depth, this research contributes to a better understanding of the geopolitical landscape and highlights the need for more attention to be paid to Canadian imperialism.</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Settings Karen Strand Leadership & Ambition: Comparative Insights from France and Costa Rica’s Fossil Fuel Moratoria 2023-07-24T09:48:35-07:00 Ethan Elliott <p>This comparative analysis highlights the enabling factors for France and Costa Rica to pursue supply-side fossil fuel restraints (fossil fuel exploration and extraction moratoria). This study helps clarify the pathways to adopting these policies and looks at intrinsic and external factors motivating state behaviour. The presence of executive leadership commitment acts as international driver combined with the enabling material conditions of carbon free /renewable electricity systems coalesce to produce fossil fuel bans; while the pursuit of climate-leader status within the international context of climate change negotiations stands out as an external motivating factor.</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Settings Ethan Elliott Marxist-Leninism: An Exploration of Ideological Adoption and Influence 2023-07-24T09:48:37-07:00 Megan Ryan-Lloyd <p>Questions of “Marxism in Action” are prominent in many aspects of political discourse. This study proposes that the main tenant of Marxist thought missing in Leninist political theory and the application thereof to the U.S.S.R. is the concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat. This argument draws on Marxist theory, Leninist theory, and the on-the-ground dictatorship of the proletariat in the U.S.S.R. between 1917 and 1924. This paper serves as a reminder of the common discrepancy between political theory and application, as every significant political doctrine is subject to an inevitable play of influences, modifications, and alterations in the geopolitical arena.</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Megan Ryan-Lloyd Queering Whanganui River’s Legal Status 2023-07-24T09:48:38-07:00 Eric Willis <p>This study discusses the political implications and consequences of subverting colonial frameworks and legal definitions of personhood to include more than human entities. I argue that the Whanganui River's legal recognition as a person recognizes the value of Māori worldviews; however, I am not&nbsp; convinced such recognition indicates an interruption of ongoing settler-colonialism. I authored this paper to facilitate conversations about decolonization and selfsovereignty that are mindful of the process without utilizing reformist politics.</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Eric Willis Developing A Critical Approach Towards Contrasting Protectionist and Free-Trade Paradigms 2023-07-24T09:48:40-07:00 Elliot Goodell Ugalde <p>This paper utilizes critical theory to interrogate the normative ontological and epistemological assumptions undergirding free-trade and protectionist paradigms, the two dominant paradigms within Western economic orthodoxy. In comparing both paradigms, this paper argues that protectionism better aligns with critical economics' agenda of remaining responsive and aware of theory’s undergirded, normative assumptions. This argument is inductively corroborated using the empirics of the 1994 EZLN uprising. Ultimately, given a binary between free-trade and protectionist paradigms, as per Western economic orthodoxy, critical economists should advocate for protectionist measures as they better align with their political project.</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Elliot Goodell Ugalde