CONSTELACIONES <p><em>CONSTELACIONES</em>, the undergraduate journal of the Department of Hispanic and Italian Studies at the University of Victoria, is an annual blind peer-reviewed showcase of extraordinary research papers of a scholarly merit in all areas of Hispanic and Italian Studies.</p> University of Victoria en-US CONSTELACIONES 2369-0585 <p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors contributing to the <em>The Corvette</em> agree to release their articles under the </span><span style="line-height: 140%;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International</a><span style="color: black;"> license. This licence allows anyone to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. </span></span></p> <p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 140%;">Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal right of first publication.</span></p> <p style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; line-height: 140%;"><span style="line-height: 115%;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</span></p> Full Issue Journal Manager Copyright (c) 2019 Journal Manager 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 NOTES ON PLVS VLTRA Kyle McCreanor Copyright (c) 2019 Kyle McCreanor 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 i i FOREWORD FROM THE CHAIR Pablo Restrepo-Gautier Copyright (c) 2019 Pablo Restrepo-Gautier 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 ii ii MESSAGE FROM THE CO-EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Stephen Bagan Isaac Nazaroff Copyright (c) 2019 Stephen Bagan, Isaac Nazaroff 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 iii iii Building Order: Manuel Tolsá and Late Colonial Neoclassical Civic Architecture in Mexico Much research has been dedicated to neoclassical European architecture, but much less has been said about its dissemination in Latin America. This paper explores how Spanish architect Manuel Tolsá came to shape the experience of public space in a prominent cultural center of the Spanish empire. Through the revival of borrowed Greco-Roman forms, his vision was realized in the architecture of the colonial system’s public institutions in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This paper argues that neoclassical architecture embodies the Enlightenment ideal of rational order and reinforces the aims of the Bourbon reforms in the political context of pre-independence Mexico. By connecting the visual evidence of three buildings, the history of the contemporaneous social institutions, and the implications of architecture in public space, I critically examine a visible legacy of Mexico’s late colonial history. Lynden Miller Copyright (c) 2019 Lynden Miller 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 1 22 The Cubans in Angola: An Assessment of Military and Diplomatic Involvement in Angola from 1960-1978 Cuba’s military and diplomatic interactions in Africa from 1960 to 1978 is a topic often overlooked, in spite of the significant role Cuba played internationally at a time when global tensions were high. This paper examines the role of Cuba in the Angolan Civil War and its diplomatic relations with the Angolan parties vying for power in addition to explaining Cuban motives for engaging abroad militarily. It also explores race relations within Cuba and how its foreign policy was partly a product of domestic relations. Cuba had friendly relations with the Soviet Union during this period and the role of communist ideology is also examined. Michael S. Paramchuk Copyright (c) 2019 Michael S. Paramchuk 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 23 35 The Legacy of a Weak Democracy: The Colombian Case The study of democracy in Latin America has been extensive since much of the region transitioned from authoritarian regimes to democratic governments in the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, much of the debate focused on defining the form of democracy that was being implemented by governments across Latin American countries. The purpose of this paper is to extend the research of democracy in Latin America. This article uses Colombia as a case study to identify the three most significant challenges to democracy in the region: political exclusion, political violence, and socioeconomic inequality. Political exclusion, political violence, and social inequality are deeply rooted in Colombia’s long history of conflict and confrontation. Political exclusion and political violence have become practices ingrained in the political behaviour of the regime and has shaped the interaction between the state and civilians, while social inequality has led to the decrease of political representation and a weak democracy. David Romero-Espitia Copyright (c) 2019 David Romero-Espitia 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 36 50 “The Little Things are Important:” A Closer Look at Peru’s Indigenous Movements President Toledo’s platform and the Bagua uprisings brought Peru's Indigenous movements into the limelight. The long and significant history of these movements, however, is often overshadowed by these recent events. Peru's Indigenous movements gained strength and momentum decades earlier, forming regional as well as international linkages to assert their rights and resist exploitation of their territories. However, the Indigenous movements of the Amazon have lacked recognition in political and scholarly discussion. This analysis examines the factors that have silenced them, in addition to illuminating several avenues that recent Indigenous movements have been exploring since the 1970s. Future research should take into account the “little things” and quieter narratives, as well as the political factors eclipsing them, in order to provide a more accurate picture of Indigenous movements in Peru. Michael Graeme Copyright (c) 2019 Michael Graeme 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 51 73 Las Cholas de Bolivia: The Uphill Battle Against Racism, Sexism and Commodification in Contemporary Bolivia <em>Cholas</em>, Indigenous Bolivian marketplace women recognized for their distinct traditional dress, have seen the commodification of their image both domestically and internationally. Their long colourful skirts, <em>polleras</em>, have been used by others as a way to censor, label, stereotype and exploit their position in a hierarchical society. Foreigners travel thousands of miles to consume what they hope to be an authentic representation of the <em>chola</em> identity. The creation of <em>cholita</em> wrestling has allowed some upward mobility for a small number of individual <em>chola</em> women, yet it perpetuates the foreign consumption of the Indigenous female body. Throughout their history of marginalization, these women have fought for recognition and equality within Bolivia. This essay will examine how the definition of what it means to be <em>chola</em> in Bolivia is ever-changing as they face one hurdle after another. Courtney McDonough Copyright (c) 2019 Courtney McDonough 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 5 1 74 87